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Impact of Diwali celebrations on urban air and noise quality in Delhi City, India


A study was conducted in the residential areas of Delhi, India, to assess the variation in ambient air quality and ambient noise levels during pre-Diwali month (DM), Diwali day (DD) and post-Diwali month during the period 2006 to 2008. The use of fireworks during DD showed 1.3 to 4.0 times increase in concentration of respirable particulate matter (PM10) and 1.6 to 2.5 times increase in concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) than the concentration during DM. There was a significant increase in sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentration but the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) did not show any considerable variation. Ambient noise level were 1.2 to 1.3 times higher than normal day. The study also showed a strong correlation between PM10 and TSP (R 2 ≥ 0.9) and SO2 and NO2 (R 2 ≥ 0.9) on DD. The correlation between noise level and gaseous pollutant were moderate (R 2 ≥ 0.5). The average concentration of the pollutants during DD was found higher in 2007 which could be due to adverse meteorological conditions. The statistical interpretation of data indicated that the celebration of Diwali festival affects the ambient air and noise quality. The study would provide public awareness about the health risks associated with the celebrations of Diwali festival so as to take proper precautions.

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Correspondence to Papiya Mandal.

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Mandal, P., Prakash, M. & Bassin, J.K. Impact of Diwali celebrations on urban air and noise quality in Delhi City, India. Environ Monit Assess 184, 209–215 (2012).

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  • Air pollutants
  • Ambient noise
  • Diwali
  • Fireworks
  • Correlation
  • Regression