Malaysia has experienced several haze events since the 1980s as a consequence of the transboundary movement of air pollutants emitted from forest fires and open burning activities. Hazy episodes can result from local activities and be categorized as “localized haze”. General probability distributions (i.e., gamma and log-normal) were chosen to analyze the PM10 concentrations data at two different types of locations in Malaysia: industrial (Johor Bahru and Nilai) and residential (Kota Kinabalu and Kuantan). These areas were chosen based on their frequently high PM10 concentration readings. The best models representing the areas were chosen based on their performance indicator values. The best distributions provided the probability of exceedances and the return period between the actual and predicted concentrations based on the threshold limit given by the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (24-h average of 150 μg/m3) for PM10 concentrations. The short-term prediction for PM10 exceedances in 14 days was obtained using the autoregressive model.
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Sansuddin, N., Ramli, N.A., Yahaya, A.S. et al. Statistical analysis of PM10 concentrations at different locations in Malaysia. Environ Monit Assess 180, 573–588 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1806-8
- Gamma distribution
- Log-normal distribution
- Autoregressive (AR) model