Increased use of nitrogenous fertilizers in the intensively cultivated rice (Oryza sativa)–wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system (covers a 13.5-ha m area in South Asia) has led to the concentration of nitrates (NO3-N) in the groundwater (GW) in Haryana State of India. Six districts from the freshwater zone were selected to identify factors affecting NO3-N enrichment in GW. Water and soil samples were collected from 1,580 locations and analyzed for their chemical properties. About 3% (26,796, and 10,588 ha) of the area was estimated to be under moderately high (7.5–10 mg l − 1) and high (>10 mg l − 1) risk categories, respectively. The results revealed that NO3-N was 10–50% higher during the pre-monsoon season than in the monsoon season. Nitrate-N decreased with the increase in aquifer depth (r 2 = 0.99). Spatial and proximity analyses using ArcGIS (9.2) revealed that (1) clay material in surface and sub-surface texture restricts N leaching, (2) piedmont and rolling plains act as an N sink, and (3) perennial rivers bring a dilution effect whereas seasonal rivers provide favorable conditions for NO3 − enrichment. The study concludes that chemical N fertilizers applied in agro-ecosystems are not the sole factor determining the NO3 in groundwater; rather, it is an integrated process governed by several other factors including physical and chemical properties of soils, proximity and type of river, and geomorphologic and geographical aspects. Therefore, future studies should adopt larger area (at least watershed scale) to understand the mechanistic pathways of NO3 enrichment in groundwater and interactive role of the natural drainage system and surrounding physical features. In addition, the study also presents a conceptual framework to describe the process of nitrate formation and leaching in piedmont plains and its transportation to the mid-plain zone.
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Chandna, P., Khurana, M.L., Ladha, J.K. et al. Spatial and seasonal distribution of nitrate-N in groundwater beneath the rice–wheat cropping system of India: a geospatial analysis. Environ Monit Assess 178, 545–562 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1712-0
- Cropping system
- Proximity analysis
- Risk categories