A geochemical study of the bottom sediments of Lake Shinji and the River Ohashi in southwestern Japan was carried out to determine their elemental compositions and to evaluate the pollution status of lake sediments by employing enrichment factor (EF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo). Present-day water quality was also assessed. Results showed that the water quality of Lake Shinji contrasts slightly between the upper and lower parts. The chemical composition of the sediments, as measured by X-ray fluorescence, included major and trace elements and total sulfur (TS). Average abundances of As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr in the Shinji sediments were 10, 29, 143, 27, 19, and 54 ppm, respectively, compared to 6, 18, 57, 16, 10, and 37 ppm in the river sediments. Based on the EF, PLI, and I geo, the lake sediments are moderately to strongly polluted with respect to As, moderately polluted with Pb, Zn, and Cr, and unpolluted with Cu and Ni. The high EF and I geo for As, Pb, and Zn in the lake sediments indicate that metal concentration has occurred in Shinji. Increases in the abundances of these metals are likely related to the fine-grained nature of the sediments, reducing conditions of the bottom sediments, enrichment in organic matter, and possibly a minor contribution from non-point anthropogenic sources. Trace metal contents are strongly correlated with Fe2O3 and TS, suggesting that Fe oxides and sulfides play a role in controlling abundances in the investigated areas.
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Ahmed, F., Bibi, M.H., Fukushima, T. et al. Recent sedimentary environment of coastal lagoon in southwestern Japan: evidence from major and trace elements. Environ Monit Assess 173, 167–180 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1379-6
- Coastal lagoon sediment
- Trace metals
- Enrichment factor
- Geoaccumulation index
- Southwest Japan