Bai, Y., Han, X., Wu, J., Chen, Z., & Li, L. (2004). Ecosystem stability and compensatory effects in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Nature, 431, 181–184.
Cao, M., Prince, S. D., Small, J., & Goetz, S. J. (2004). Remotely sensed interannual variations and trends in terrestrial net primary productivity 1981–2000. Ecosystems, 7, 233–242.
Chen, G. C., Lu, X. F., Peng, M., & Zhao, Y. L. (2003). Basic characteristics and conservation of ecosystems of Sanjiangyuan region, Qinghai province. Qinghai Sciences and Technology, 4, 14–17 (in Chinese).
Chen, J., Hu, Z. Y., Dou, S., & Qian, Z. Y. (2006). Yin–yang slope problem along Qinghai–Tibetan lines and its radiation mechanism. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 44(3), 217–224.
Dong, Q. M., Zhao, X. Q., & Ma, Y. S. (2007). Situations and strategy of sustained development on alpine grassland—livestock industry in headwater region of Yangtze and Yellow rivers. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 28(4), 438–442 (in Chinese).
ECAGRC (Editorial Committee of Atlas of Grassland Resources of China) (1993). Atlas of grassland resources of China (1:1M). Beijing: China Atlas (in Chinese).
ECEETNR (Editorial Committee of Ecological Environment of TRHR Natural Reserve) (2002). Ecological environments of TRHR natural reserve. Xinning: Qinghai People’s Press (in Chinese).
Fang, J., Piao, S., Tang, Z., Peng, C., & Ji, W. (2001). Interannual variability in net primary production and precipitation. Science, 293, 1723.
Feng, J. M., Wang, T., & Xie, C. W. (2006). Eco-environmental degradation in the source region of the Yellow river, northeast Qinghai–Xizang plateau. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 122, 125–143.
Gill, R. A., Kelly, R. H., Parton, W. J., Day, K. A., Jackson, R. B., et al. (2002). Using simple environmental variables to estimate below-ground productivity in grasslands. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11, 79–86.
Goetz, S. J., Prince, S. D., Goward, S. N., Thawley, M. M., & Small, J. (1999). Satellite remote sensing of primary production: An improved production efficiency modeling approach. Ecological Modelling, 122, 235–239.
Goetz, S. J., Prince, S. D., Small, J., Gleason, A. C. R., & Thawley, M. (2000). Interannual variability of global terrestrial primary production: Results of a model driven with satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 20077–20091.
Hu, Z. M., Fan, J. W., Zhong, H. P., & Yu, G. R. (2007). Spatiotemporal dynamics of aboveground primary productivity along a precipitation gradient in Chinese temperate grassland. Science in Chinese Series D: Earth Sciences, 50, 754–764.
Huang, T. Q., Zhao, T., Feng, R. G., Ding, Y. J., Li, L. H., Liu, G. B., et al. (2007). Project arrangement and primal progress in the second phase of the CAS Action Plan for west development. Advances in Earth Science, 22(9), 888–895 (in Chinese).
Huxman, T. E., Smith, M. D., Fay, P. A., Knapp, A. K., et al. (2004). Convergence across biomes to a common rain-use efficiency. Nature, 429, 651–654.
IPCC (2001). Climate change 2001: Synthesis report. In R. T. Watson & the Core Writing Team (Eds.), A contribution of working groups I, II, and III to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jing, H., & Xu, J. L. (2005). The effects of human economic activities on eco-environment of the three rivers source region since mid-Qing dynasty. Ascent, 24(3), 87–92 (in Chinese).
Knapp, A. K., & Smith, M. D. (2001). Variation among biomass in temporal dynamics of aboveground primary production. Science, 291, 481–484.
Lauenroth, W. K., & Sala, O. E. (1992). Long-term forage production of North American shortgrass steppe. Ecological Applications, 2, 397–403.
Le Houérou, H. N., Bingham, R. L., & Skerbek, W. (1988). Relationship between the variability of primary production and the variability of annual precipitation in world arid lands. Journal of Arid Environments, 15, 1–18.
Li, X. L. (2002). Natural factors and formative mechanism of “Black Beach” formed on grassland in Qinghai–Tibetan plateau. Pratacultural Science, 19(1), 20–22 (in Chinese).
Liu, X. L. (2007). The investigation for degenerate grassland of “Degenerated Meadow” in Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve. Journal of Qinghai Normal University (Natural Science), 1, 93–96 (in Chinese).
Liu, R., Chen, J. M., Liu, J., Deng, F., & Sun, R. (2007). Application of a new leaf area index algorithm to China’s landmass using MODIS data for carbon cycle research. Journal of Environmental Management, 85(3), 649–658.
Liu, W., Wang, Q. J., Wang, X., Zhou, L., & Li, Y. F. (1999). Ecological process of forming “black-soil-type” degraded grassland. Acta Agrestia Sinica, 7(4), 300–307 (in Chinese).
Liu, J. Y., Xu, X. L., & Shao, Q. Q. (2008). Grassland degradation in the Three River Headwaters region, Qinghai province. Journal of Geographical Science, 18, 259–273.
Lu, Q. S., Huang, L., & Lu, N. (2009). Degraded grassland patterns of eastern eight counties, source region of the three rivers, Qinghai province. Journal of Natural Resources, 24(2), 259–267 (in Chinese).
O’Connor, T. G., Haines, L. M., & Snyman, H. A. (2001). Influence of precipitation and species composition on biomass of a semi-arid African grassland. Journal of Ecology, 89, 850–860.
Paruelo, J. M., Lauenroth, W. K., Burke, I. C., & Sala, O. E. (1999). Grassland precipitation-use efficiency varies across a resource gradient. Ecosystems, 2, 64–68.
Prince, S. D., & Goward, S. N. (1995). Global primary production: a remote sensing approach. Journal of Biogeography, 22, 815–835.
Qinghai Grassland Station (1988). Grassland resources of Qinghai. Xining: Qinghai People’s Press (in Chinese).
Su, D. X., Meng, Y. D., & Wu, B. G. (2003). Agricultural industry standards of P.R.China—calculation of proper carrying capacity of rangelands (NY/T 635–2002). Beijing: Standards Press of China (in Chinese).
Wang, G. X., & Cheng, G. D. (2000). Eco-environmental changes and causative analysis in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, China. The Environmentalist, 20, 221–232.
Wang, G. X., & Cheng, G. D. (2001). Characteristics of grassland and ecological changes of vegetations in the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow rivers. Journal of Desert Research, 21(2), 101–107 (in Chinese).
Wang, K., Hong, F. Z., & Zong, J. Y. (2005a). Resource resources and their sustainable utility in the Three-River Headwaters Region. Acta Agrestia Sinica, 13(Suppl.), 28–31 (in Chinese).
Wang, Q. J., Lai, D. Z., Jing, Z. C., Li, S. X., & Shi, H. L. (2005b). The resources, ecological environment and sustainable development in the source regions of the Yangtze, Huanghe and Yalu Tsangpo rivers. Journal of Lanzhou University (Natural Sciences), 41(4), 50–55 (in Chinese).
Xu, X. L., Liu, J. Y., Shao, Q. Q., & Fan, J. W. (2008). The dynamic changes of ecosystem spatial pattern and structure in the Three River Headwaters Region in Qinghai Province during recent 30 years. Geographical Research, 27(4), 829–838 (in Chinese).
Yang, J. P., Ding, Y. J., & Chen, R. S. (2006). Spatial and temporal of variations of alpine vegetation cover in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers of the Tibetan Plateau from 1982 to 2001. Environmental Geology, 50, 313–322.
Zhao, X. Q., & Zhou, H. K. (2005). Eco-environmental degradation, vegetation regeneration and sustainable development in the headwaters of three rivers on Tibetan plateau. Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20(6), 471–476 (in Chinese).
Zheng, D., Lin, Z. Y., & Zhang, X. Q. (2002). Progress in studies of Tibetan plateau and global environmental change. Earth Science Frontiers, 9(1), 95–102 (in Chinese).
Zhou, X. M. (2001). Chinese Kobresia meadow. Beijing: Science (in Chinese).
Zhou, X. M., Wang, Z. B., & Du, Q. (1994). Qinghai vegetation. Xining: Qinghai People’s Press (in Chinese).
Zhou, H. K., Zhao, X. Q., Tang, Y. H., & Zhou, L. (2005a). Alpine grassland degradation and its control in the source regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, China. Grassland Science, 51, 191–203.
Zhou, H. K., Zhao, X. Q., Zhou, L., Liu, W., Li, Y. N., & Tang, Y. H. (2005b). A study on correlations between vegetation degradation and soil degradation in the alpine meadow of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 14(3), 31–40 (in Chinese).