Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 167, Issue 1–4, pp 359–370 | Cite as

Heavy metal concentrations in water, suspended matter, and sediment from Gökova Bay, Turkey

  • Nuray BalkisEmail author
  • Abdullah Aksu
  • Erdoğan Okuş
  • Reşat Apak


The contents of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Hg) dissolved in water and suspended solids of Gökova Bay—partly and fully sampled in 2005 and 2006, respectively—are quite higher than the average values encountered in uncontaminated sea water. The high concentrations are associated with terrestrial inputs from the mining zones and anthropogenic (domestic + industrial) sources. Moreover, the distribution of Fe and Cu is affected by primary production because these elements function as nutrients in biological activities. The Cr, Ni, and Fe concentrations of surface sediments are above the shale average. The Cr and Ni contents of surface sediments representative of river mouths strongly correlate with total phosphorus contents. In a sulfide-poor environment, Pb and Cu were concentrated at a higher ratio in surface sediments than Cd, probably due to higher stabilities of their surface complexes with amorphous iron oxides and clay minerals existing as major components in the sediments. The exceptional enrichment of Zn may be attributed to double oxide formation with amorphous iron oxides in sediments. The high metal values are most probably caused by terrestrial inputs from anthropogenic sources and the mining zones at the southeast part of the bay. The Al, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg contents are below the shale average. The low values have possibly originated from the coarse-grained sandy sediments having a low affinity for metals. There are no distinct differences in the metal distributions in water and suspended matter between the years 2005 and 2006 in the bay, probably due to low sedimentation rates.


Pollution monitoring Water pollution Sediment pollution Heavy metals Gökova Bay 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nuray Balkis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdullah Aksu
    • 1
  • Erdoğan Okuş
    • 2
  • Reşat Apak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Oceanography, Institute of Marine Science and ManagementIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Physical Oceanography and Marine Biology, Institute of Marine Science and ManagementIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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