Assessing impact of industrialization in terms of LULC in a dry tropical region (Chhattisgarh), India using remote sensing data and GIS over a period of 30 years


The main focus of the paper is to assess the land use/ land cover (LULC) change in northern Chhattisgarh due to industrialization using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS). The impact was assessed using an information extraction method applied to temporal satellite data (LANDSAT and IRS scenes) in GIS domain. For assessing the impact on natural resources, the classification scheme was restricted to (1) Forest patches ((a) completely cleared, (b) partially cleared, (c) least affected), (2) Non-Forest ((d) completely changed, (e) least changed), (3) Industrial/Mining area, and (4) River. Over the three decades 22.22% of forests have been completely cleared and converted to industrial setup. Another 25% is completely cleared and 10% is degraded. Around 4% of agricultural area is totally affected due to industrial activity. Random assessment of plant distribution (Trees, Shrubs and Herbs) indicates significant changes in the herb distribution directly related to distance gradient form the industrial/mining setup. Visual recording, socio-economic survey and satellite data also helped in delineation of extent of environmental pollution in forest and non-forest areas. The paper presents methodology for the environmental impact assessment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Chatterjee, R. S., Bannerjee, D., Roy, J., & Bhattacharya, A. K. (1994). Landsat TM data processing techniques for identifying and delineating environmental impacts of coal mining. ITC Journal, 2, 155–162.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ghosh, R. (1989). Mining in Jharia coalfield, Eastern India: an estimation of its impact index. Journal Geological Society of India, 33, 353–360.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ghosh, R., & Ghosh, D. N. (1991). Land use map of Jharia coalfield, Eastern India, aided by remote sensing. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 18, 23–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Hill, J. M., Harlow, C. A., & Zimmerman, P. (1983). Geographic information systems as applied to the manipulation of environmental data. The Environmentalist, 3, 33–38.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Joshi, P. K., Kumar, M., Midha, N., Vijayanand, & Paliwal, A. (2006). Assessing areas deforested by coal mining activities through satellite remote sensing images and GIS in parts of Korba, Chhattisgarh. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 34, 415–421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Mamula, N. (1978). Remote sensing methods for monitoring surface coal mining in the Northern Great Plains. US Geological Survey Journal of Research, 6, 149–160.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Mansor, S. B., Cracknell, A. P., Shilin, B. V., & Gornyi, V. I. (1994). Monitoring of underground coal fires using thermal infrared data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 15, 1675–1685.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Parks, N. F., & Peterson, G. W. (1987). High resolution remote sensing of spatially and spectrally complex coal surface mines of Central Pennsylvania. Photograpmmetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 4, 415–420.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Prakash, A., & Gupta, R. P. (1998). Land use mapping and change detection in a coal mining area—a case study in the Jharia coalfield, India. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 391–410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Rathore, C. S., & Wright, R. (1993). Monitoring environmental impacts of surface coal mining. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14, 1021–1042.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Rouse, J. W., Haas, R. H., Schell, J. A., & Deering, D. W. (1973). Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with ERTS. In Proceedings of the 3rd ERT S Symposium, NASA SP-351, 1, 48–62.

  12. SAC (1990). Impact of mining activities and super thermal power stations on environment. Project Report No. RSAM/SAC/ENVN/PR/08/90, November 1990.

  13. Schmidt, H., & Glaeser, C. (1998). Multi-temporal analysis of satellite data and their use in the monitoring of the environmental impacts of open cast lignite mining areas in Eastern Germany. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2245–2260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Walkley, A., & Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37, 29–37.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Wang, Y. L., Dwason, R., & Han, D. (2001). Landscape ecological planning and design of degraded mining land. Land Degradation & Development, 12, 449–459.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Zha, Y., Liu, Y., & Deng, X. (2007). A landscape approach to quantifying land cover changes in Yulin, Northwest China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, DOI 10.1007/s10661-007-9751-x.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. K. Joshi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Joshi, P.K., Kumar, M., Paliwal, A. et al. Assessing impact of industrialization in terms of LULC in a dry tropical region (Chhattisgarh), India using remote sensing data and GIS over a period of 30 years. Environ Monit Assess 149, 371–376 (2009).

Download citation


  • GIS
  • Industrialization
  • LULC
  • Remote sensing
  • Tropical forest