Concentrations of heavy metals and aquatic macrophytes of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar an anthropogenic lake affected by coal mining effluent

  • Virendra Kumar Mishra
  • Alka Rani Upadhyay
  • Sudhir Kumar Pandey
  • B. D. Tripathi
Article

Abstract

Five heavy metals Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg were found in high concentration from three sampling sites located in Asia’s largest anthropogenic lake Govind Ballabh Pant GBP Sagar. Concentrations of these heavy metals were measured in Water, bottom sediment and in different parts of the aquatic macrophytes collected from the reservoir. Plants collected from the lake were Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Potamogeton pectinatus, Marsilea quadrifolia, Pistia stratiotes, Ipomea aquqtica, Potamogeton crispus, Hydrilla verticillata and Aponogeton natans. These plants have shown the high concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg in their different parts due to bioaccumulation. In general plant roots exhibited higher concentrations of heavy metals than corresponding sediments. A comparison between different morphological tissues of the sampled plants reveled the metal concentration in following order roots > leaves. Analyses of bottom sediment indicated the higher concentrations of Cd, Mn, Cu and Pb. Strong positive correlations were obtained between the metals in water and in plants as well as between metal in sediment and in plants. Indicating the potential of these plants for pollution monitoring of these metals.

Keywords

Coal mines Heavy metals Aquatic macrophytes Sediment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albers, P. H., & Camardese, M. B. (1993). Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 12(6), 959–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewaters. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, NW.Google Scholar
  3. Bassi, M., Corrodi, M. G., & Reolini, M. (1990). Effects of Chromium (VI) on two freshwater plants. Lemna minor and Pistia stratiotes. Cytobios, 62, 27–38.Google Scholar
  4. Campbell, C. A., & Plank, C. O. (1998). Preparation of plant tissue for laboratory analysis. In Y. P. Kalara (Ed.), Handbook of reference methods for plant analysis. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC.Google Scholar
  5. Chakraborty, M. K., Chaulya, S. K., Ahamad, M., Singh, K. K. K., Singh, R. S., Tewary, B. K., et al. (2000). Hydrogeological conditions around an opencast mine. Minetech, 22(1), 41–53.Google Scholar
  6. CPCB (1993). Guidelines for the discharge of waste-water in natural water-bodies. New Delhi, India: Central Pollution Control Board.Google Scholar
  7. Crowder, A. (1991). Acidification of metal and macrophytes. Environmental Pollution, 71, 171–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cutler, J. M., & Rains, D. W. (1974). Characterization of cadmium uptake by plant tissue. Plant Physiology, 54, 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dhar, B. B., Ratan, S., & Jamal, A. (1986). Impact of Opencast coal mining on water environment – a case study. Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels, 34(12), 596–601.Google Scholar
  10. Denny, H., & Wilkins, D. (1987). Zinc tolerance in Betula sp. II: Microanalytical studies of zinc uptake into root tissues. New Phytologist, 106, 525–534.Google Scholar
  11. Ding, X., Jiang, J., Wang, Y., Wang, W., & Ru, B. (1994). Bioconcentration of cadmium in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in relation to thiol group content. Environmental Pollution, 84(1), 93–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunbabin, J. S., & Bowmer, K. H. (1992). Potential use of constructed wetlands for treatment industrial waste water containing metals. The Science of Total Environment, 111, 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ellis, J., Slutes, R., Renitt, D., & Zeng, T. (1994). Use of macrophytes for pollution treatment in urban wetlands. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 11, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frust, W., Verkleoj, J., & Sacht, H. (1992). Metal tolerance in plants. Acta Botanica Neerlaneloca, 41, 229–269.Google Scholar
  15. Garg, P., & Chandra, P. (1993). The Duckweed Wolffia globosa as an indicator of heavy metal pollution: sensitivity to Cr and Cd. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 29(1), 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gerloff, G. G. (1975). Nutritional Ecology of Nuisance Aquatic Plants. USA EPA Ecol Res Ser, p. 78.Google Scholar
  17. Herlhy, A. T., Kaufman, P. R., Mitch, M. E., & Brown, D. D. (1990). Regional estimates of acid mine drainage impact on stream in mid-Atlantic and southern United States. Water Air Soil Pollution, 50, 91–107.Google Scholar
  18. Huebert, D. B., & Shay, J. M. (1991). The effect of cadmium and its interaction with external calcium in the submerged aquatic macrophyte Lemna trisulca L Aquatic. Toxicology, 20, 57–72.Google Scholar
  19. Hummouda, O., Gaber, S., & Abdel Hameed, M. (1990). Assessment of effectiveness of treatment of wastewater contaminated aquatic ecosystem with Lemna gibba. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 17, 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jackson, L. J., & Kalff, J. (1993). Patterns in metal content of submerged aquatic macrophytes: The role of plant growth form. Freshwater Biology, 29, 351–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klumpp, A., Bauer, K., Franz-Gerstein, C., & Menezes, M. (2002). Variation of nutrient and metal concentrations in aquatic macrophytes along the Rio Cachoeira in Bahia (Brazil). Environment International, 28, 165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maine, M., Duarte, M., & Sune, N. (2001). Cadmium uptake by floating macrophytes. Water Research, 35, 2629–2634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miretzky, P., Saralegui, A., & Fernández Cirelli, A. (2004). Aquatic macrophytes potential for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Chemosphere, 57, 997–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mishra, V. K., Upadhyay, A. R., Pandey, S. K., & Tripathi B. D. (2007). Heavy metal pollution induced due to coal mining effluent on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and its management through naturally occurring aquatic macrophytes. Bioresource Technology. doi:10.1016/ j.biortech. 2007.03.010 (in press).
  25. O’Halloran, J., Walsh, A. R., & Fitzpatrick, P. J. (1997). The determination of trace elements in biological and environmental samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy. In D. Sheehan (Ed.), Methods in biotechnology, bioremediation protocols, vol. 2., New Jersey: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  26. Phillip, D. (1994). Bioaccumulation handbook of ecotoxicology, Vol.1. (pp.378–396) Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  27. Robach, F. G., Thiebaut, G., Tremolieres, M., & Muller, S. (1996). A reference system for continental running waters: plant communities as bioindicators of increasing eutrophication in alkaline and acidic waters in north-east France. Hydrobiologia, 340, 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sadler, R., & Rynja, G. (1992). Preservation, storage, transport, analysis and reporting of water samples, Queensland government chemical laboratory report, series No. 12. Brisbane: Queensland Government Publishers.Google Scholar
  29. Sawidis, T., Chettri, M. K., Zachariadis, G. A., & Siratis, J. A. (1995). Heavy metals in aquatic plants and sediments from water systems in Macedonia, Greece. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 32, 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tiwari, R. K. (2001). Environmental impact of coal mining on water regime and its management. Water, Air, Soil Pollution, 132, 185–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Van den Berg, G. A., Loch, J. P., & Winkels, H. J. (1998). Effect of fluctuating hydrological conditions on the mobility of heavy metals in soils of a freshwater estuary in The Netherlands. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 102, 377–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vazquez, M. D., Fernandez, J. A., Lopez, J., & Carballeira, A. (2000). Effects of water acidity and metals concentration on accumulation and within-plant distribution of metals in the aquatic bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica. Water, Air Soil Pollution, 120, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang, H. K. (1990). Literature review on duckweed toxicity testing. Environmental Research, 52, 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Whitton, B. (1985). Biological monitoring of heavy metals in flowing waters. Symposium Biomonitoring State Environment. New Delhi: Indian Science Academy. pp. 50–55.Google Scholar
  35. World health Organization (1991). Guidelines for drinking water quality, recommendations, vol. 1. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  36. Yurukova, L., & Kochev, K. (1994). Heavy metal concentrations in freshwater macrophytes from the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 52, 627–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Virendra Kumar Mishra
    • 1
  • Alka Rani Upadhyay
    • 1
  • Sudhir Kumar Pandey
    • 1
  • B. D. Tripathi
    • 1
  1. 1.Pollution Ecology Research Laboratory, Centre of Advanced study in BotanyBanaras Hindu UnversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations