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Monitoring of Coliforms and chlorine residual in water distribution network of Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to examine the drinking water quality of Rawal Treatment Plant, Rawalpindi and its distribution network by collecting samples from eight different locations. The aim was to determine potential relationship between the presence of microorganisms and chlorine residual in the distribution network. Quantification of chlorine residual, turbidity, standard plate count (SPC), fecal and total coliforms by Most Probable Number (MPN) was performed. Three different forms of chlorine were measured at each sampling station such as free chlorine, residual chlorine, chloramines and total chlorine residual. A critical evaluation of data presented indicated that pH generally ranged from 7.02–7.30; turbidity varied from 0.34–2.79 NTU; conductivity fluctuated from 359–374 μS/cm; and TDS values were found to be ranging between 180–187 mg/l. Station # 7 was found to be most contaminated. The value of total chlorine was found to be 0.86 to1.7 mg/l at Station # 3 and 6, respectively. Highest standard plate count was 62 CFU/ml at Station # 7. Total coliforms were less than 1.1 MPN/100 ml at almost most of the stations except at Station # 3 where it was found to be greater than 23.0 MPN /100 ml. Overall aim of this study is to create awareness about contamination of drinking water in the water distribution networks and to make recommendations to provincial agencies such as EPA, CDA and WASA that regular monitoring should be carried out to ensure that the chlorine residual is available at consumer end.

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Correspondence to Shaukat Farooq.

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Farooq, S., Hashmi, I., Qazi, I.A. et al. Monitoring of Coliforms and chlorine residual in water distribution network of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess 140, 339–347 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9872-2

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Keywords

  • Monitoring
  • Disinfection
  • Chlorination
  • Water quality
  • Distribution network
  • Chlorine residual