The present study deals with the effect of fireworks on ambient air quality during Diwali Festival in Lucknow City. In this study, PM10, SO2, NO x and 10 trace metals associated with PM10 were estimated at four representative locations, during day and night times for Pre Diwali (day before Diwali) and Diwali day. On Diwali day 24 h average concentration of PM10, SO2, and NO x was found to be 753.3, 139.1, and 107.3 μg m−3, respectively, and these concentrations were found to be higher at 2.49 and 5.67 times for PM10, 1.95 and 6.59 times for SO2 and 1.79 and 2.69 for NO x , when compared with the respective concentration of Pre Diwali and normal day, respectively. On Diwali day, 24 h values for PM10, SO2, and NO x were found to be higher than prescribed limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), and exceptionally high (7.53 times) for PM10. On Diwali night (12 h) mean level of PM10, SO2 and NO x was 1,206.2, 205.4 and 149.0 μg m−3, respectively, which was 4.02, 2.82 and 2.27 times higher than their respective daytime concentrations and showed strong correlations (p<0.01) with each other. The 24 h mean concentration of metals associated with PM10 was found to be in the order of Ca (3,169.44)>Fe (747.23)>Zn (542.62)>Cu (454.03),>Pb (307.54)>Mn (83.90)>Co (78.69)>Cr (42.10)>Ni (41.47)>Cd (34.69) in ng m−3 and all these values were found to be higher than the Pre Diwali (except Fe) and normal day. The metal concentrations on Diwali day were found to be significantly different than normal day (except Fe & Cu). The concentrations of Co, Ni, Cr and Cd on Diwali night were found to be significantly higher than daytime concentrations for Pre Diwali (control). The inter correlation of metals between Ca with Pb, Zn with Ni and Cr, Cu with Co, Co with Mn, Ni with Cd, Mn with Cd, Ni with Cd and Cr, and Cr with Cd showed significant relation either at p<0.05 or P<0.01 levels, which indicated that their sources were the same. The metals Cu, Co, Ni, Cr and Cd showed significant (p<0.01) association with PM10. These results indicate that fireworks during Diwali festival affected the ambient air quality adversely due to emission and accumulation of PM10, SO2, NO x and trace metals.
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Barman, S.C., Singh, R., Negi, M.P.S. et al. Ambient air quality of Lucknow City (India) during use of fireworks on Diwali Festival. Environ Monit Assess 137, 495–504 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9784-1
- Air pollutants
- Trace metals