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Evaluating greywater reuse potential for sustainable water resources management in Oman

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This study aims to evaluate the potential of greywater availability in Muscat Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman, to establish a methodology for greywater quantity estimation, to test greywater quality in order to assess reuse potential, and to examine public acceptance for reuse.Total fresh water consumption and greywater generation from different household sources were measured by water meters in five selected households during summer and winter. Additionally, a survey was designed and conducted in five administrative areas of Muscat Governorate, with the objective of testing a methodology for estimating greywater generation potential in these areas. Collected data were compared with that used by the Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water, Sultanate of Oman. The survey covered a total of 169 houses and 1,365 people. Greywater samples were collected and analyzed from showers, laundries, kitchens and sinks in some of these households to determine their water quality parameters. Statistical analysis results indicated that there is no significant variance in the total fresh water consumption between data used by the ministry and those measured and estimated during this study, highlighting the applicability of the tested method. The study concluded that the average per capita greywater generation rate is 151 Lpcd. Greywater production ranged from 80 to 83% of the total fresh water consumption and most of the greywater is generated from showers. Further, 55 to 57% of the greywater generated in a typical Omani household originated from the shower, 28 to 33% originated from the kitchen, 6 to 9% originated from laundry, and 5 to 7% originated from sink, which constitutes approximately 81% of the total fresh water consumption. The physical, chemical, and biological analyses of the grab samples revealed that greywater contains significant levels of suspended solids, inorganic constituents, total organic carbon, chemical and biochemical oxygen demands, total Coliforms and Escherichia Coliform bacteria. The public acceptance survey illustrated that approximately 76% of the respondents accepted the reuse of greywater for gardening, 53% for car washing and 66% for toilet flushing.

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BOD5 :

five-day biochemical oxygen demand (mg/l).


chemical oxygen demand (mg/l).


dissolved oxygen (mg/l).


-log hydrogen-ion concentration.


total organic carbon (mg/l).


electrical conductivity (mS/m).


surfactants (mg/l).


total solids (mg/l).


total suspended solids (mg/l).


total dissolved solids (mg/l).


total fixed solids (mg/l).


total volatile solids (mg/l).


fixed suspended solids (mg/l).


volatile suspended solids (mg/l).


total coliforms


fecal coliforms


most probable number.


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Correspondence to Ahmad Jamrah.

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Jamrah, A., Al-Futaisi, A., Prathapar, S. et al. Evaluating greywater reuse potential for sustainable water resources management in Oman. Environ Monit Assess 137, 315–327 (2008).

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