Skip to main content

Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in ground water along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract

Nitrate–N and Fluoride concentrations were analyzed in shallow and unconfined ground water aquifers of Kanpur district along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Northern India. Kanpur district was divided into three zones namely, Bithore, Kanpur City and Beyond Jajmau and sampling was carried out three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter). The data set consisted of the results of water samples from around 99 India Mark II hand Pumps, which were analyzed for summer monsoon and winter seasons. In Bithore zone, 19% of the samples exceeded the BIS (Bureau of India Standards) limit 10.2 mg/l as nitrate–N and as high as 166 mg/l as nitrate–N was observed. 10% and 7% samples in Kanpur city and beyond Jajmau zone respectively, exceeded the BIS limit. The Frequency distribution histogram of nitrate–N revealed a skewed (non-normal) distribution. Both point and non-point sources contribute to the ground water contamination. Especially in Bithore zone, the point sources could be attributed to the animal wastes derived from cows and buffaloes and non point sources could be due to the extensive agricultural activity prevalent in that area. Fluoride concentration in most samples was within the BIS maximum permissible level of 1.5 mg/l. No significant seasonal variation in water quality parameters was observed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. APHA (1998). Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 18th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Banks, D., & Soldal, O. (2002). Towards a policy for sustainable use of groundwater by non-governmental organizations in Afghanistan. Hydrogeology Journal, 10, 377–392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. BIS (1992). Bureau of Indian Standards. IS:10500. New Delhi, India: Manak Bhawan.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Datta, P. S., Deb, D. L., & Tyagi, S. K. (1997). Assessment of groundwater contamination from fertilizers in the Delhi area based on 18O, NO−3 and K+ composition. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 27, 249–262.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Davies, D. B., & Sylvester-Bradley, R. (1995). The contribution of fertilizer nitrogen to leachable nitrogen in the UK: A review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 68, 399–406.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Diez, J. A., Caballero, R., Roman, R., Tarquis, A., Cartagena, M. C., & Vallejo, A. (2000). Integrated fertilizer and irrigation management to reduce nitrate leaching in Central Spain. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29, 1539–1547.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Fetter, C. W. (1999). Contaminant Hydrogeology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hudak, P. F. (1999). Chloride and nitrate distributions in the Hickory aquifer, Central Texas, USA. Environment International, 25, 393–401.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Jain, P., Sharma, J. D., Sohu, D., & Sharma, P. (2006). Chemical analysis of drinking water of villages of Sanganer Tehsil, Jaipur District. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2, 373–379.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. KRWSSA (2004). Groundwater quality scenario in Karnataka. World Bank Assisted Jal Nirmal Project, Karnataka Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project II, 2004. Karnataka Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Agency (KRWSSA). Bangalore: Bangalore, Rural Development and Panchayat Raj Department, Government of Karnataka.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Malik, R. P. S. (2000). Agriculture and water quality in India. Towards sustainable management. Water Report, 21, 73–85.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Prakasa Rao, E. V. S., & Puttanna, K. (2006). Strategies for combating nitrate pollution. Current Science, 91(10), 1335–1339.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Rodvang, S. J., & Simpkins, W. W. (2001). Agricultural contaminants in Quaternary aquitards: A review of occurrence and fate in North America. Hydrogeology Journal, 9, 44–59.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Sanghi, R., & Tewari, V. (2001). Monitoring of pesticide residues in summer fruits and vegetables from Kanpur, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 67, 587–593.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Sankararamakrishnan, N., Sharma, A. K., & Sanghi, R. (2005). Organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in ground water and surface waters of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Enviroment International, 31, 113–120.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Singh, K. P., Singh, V. K., Mallik, A., & Basant, N. (2006) Distribution of nitrogen species in groundwater aquifers of an industrial area in alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plains – A case study. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 28(5), 473–485.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Somasundaram, M. V., Ravindran, G., & Tellam, J. H. (1993). Ground water pollution of the Madras urban aquifer, India. Ground Water, 31, 4–11.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Spalding, R. F., & Exner, M. E. (1993). Occurrence of nitrate in groundwater – A review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 22, 392–402.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Stites, W., & Kraft, G. J. (2000). Groundwater quality beneath irrigated vegetable fields in a north-central US sand plain. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29, 1509–1517.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Subramaniyan, V. (2004). Water quality in South Asia. Asian Journal of Water, and Environment, and Pollution, 1, 41–54.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Susheela, A. K. (1999). Fluorosis management programme in India. Curruent Science, 77, 1250–1256.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Susheela, A. K., Kumar, A., Bhatnagar, M., & Bahadur, M. (1993). Prevalence of endemic fluorosis with gastro-intestinal manifestations in people living in some north-Indian villages. Fluoride, 26, 97–104.

    Google Scholar 

  23. United Nation’s General Assembly (2004). 58th Session, A/Res/58/217. http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/reference.html

  24. Wakida, F. T., & Lerner, D. N. (2005). Non-agricultural sources of ground water nitrate: A review and case study. Water Research, 39, 3–16.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. WHO (1998). World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Geneva: World Health Organization.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nalini Sankararamakrishnan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sankararamakrishnan, N., Sharma, A.K. & Iyengar, L. Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in ground water along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environ Monit Assess 146, 375–382 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-0085-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fluoride
  • Nitrate
  • Groundwater
  • Kanpur