Concentrations of cadmium and lead heavy metals in Dardanelles seawater

Abstract

Cadmium and lead were determined simultaneously in seawater by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) preceded by adsoptive collection of complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) on to a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). In preliminary experiments the optimal analytical condition for oxine concentration was found to be 2.10−5 M, at pH 7.7, the accumulation potential was −1.1 V, and the initial scannig potential was −0.8 V. The peak potentials were found −0.652 V for Cd and −0.463 V for Pb At the 60 s accumalation time. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitatification (LOQ) were found to be by voltammetry as 0.588 and 1.959 μg l−1 (RSD, 5.50%) for Cd and 0.931 and 3.104 μg l−1 (RSD, 4.10%) for Pb at 60 s stirred accumulation time respectively. In these conditions the most of the seawater samples are amenable for direct voltammetric determination of cadmium and lead using a HMDE. An adsorptive stripping mechanism of the electrode reaction was proposed. For the comparison, seawater samples were also analysed by ICP-atomic emission spectrometry method (ICP-AES). The applied voltammetric technique was validated and good recoveries were obtained.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abdullah, M.I., Reusch Berg, B., & Klimek, R. (1976). Analytica Chimica Acta, 84, 307.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Alonsa, E., Santos, A., Callejon, M., & Jimenez, J.C. (2004). Speciation as sreeening tool for the determination of heavy metal surface water pollution in the Guadimar river basin2. Chemosphere, 56, 561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Anonymous. (1991). Water pollution control governing statutes, sampling and analysing methods. Official paper, Ankara, 2078.

  4. Aycan, Ş. (1994). Polarographic and voltammetric techniques press 1 (p. 305).Yıldız Technic University.

  5. Balcı, A. & Türkoğlu, M. (1993). Heavy metals in sediment from Izmir Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Constant, M.G. (1984). Direct determination of subnanomolar levels of zinc in seawater by cathodic stripping voltammetry. Talanta, 31, 1069.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Dechev. (1990). The ecological state of the Black Sea. Bulgarian Academy of Siences. Sientific Information Center, 8, 5.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Doğan, M. & Soylak, M. (2000). Water Chemistry (in Turkish). Erciyes University Publication.

  9. Huang, W. & Zhang, S. (2002). Determination of mercury at adithizone-modified glassy carbon electrode by anodic stripping voltammetry. Analytical sciences, 18, 187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Jurado-Gonzelez, J.A., Galindo-Riano, M.D., & Garcia-Vargos, M. (2003). 2 Experimental designs in the devolopment of a new method for the sensitive determination of cadmium in seawater by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry Analytica Chimica Acta, 487, 229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Gillain, G., Duyckaerts, G., & Disteche, A. (1979). Analytica Chimica Acta, 106, 23.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Gündüz, T. (1999). Environment Chemistry (in Turkish) Gazi Büro, Ankara.

  13. Gündüz, T. (2005). Quantitative Analysis. 8th press, 345, 348 (in Turkish) Gazi Büro, Ankara.

  14. Mee, D. (1992). The Black Sea in crisis: a need for concerted international action. Ambio, 21(3), 278.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Method 200.7. (1994). Determination of Metals and Trace Elements in Water and Wastes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, Revision in Methods for the Determination of Metals in Environmental Samples-Supplement I. USEPA Office of Research and Development, EPA/600/R-94/111.

  16. Metrohm 757 VA Computrace Software Manual. (2001). Metrohmıon analysis, CH-9101 Herisau/Switzerland. www.metrohm.com.

  17. Neeb, R. (1959). Zeitschrift Fur Analytische, 171, 321.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. özmen, H., Külahcı, F., Çukurovalı, A., & Doğru, M. (2004). Concentrations of heavy metal and radioactivity in surface water and sediment of Hazar Lake (Elazığ, Turkey). Chemosphere, 55, 401–408.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Paneli, M.G. & Voulgaropoulos, A. (1993). Applications of adsoptive stripping voltammetry in the determination of trace and ultratrace metals. Review artcicle. Electroanalsis, 5, 355.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Parker, C.R. (1972). Water analysis by atomic absorption Varan Techtron, Springvale, Victoria.

  21. Riley, CM. & Rosanske. TW. (1996). Development and validation of analytical methods. Elsevier Science Ltd., New York.

  22. Sander, S. (1999). Simultaneous adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of molybdenum(VI), uranium(VI), vanadium(V), and antimony(III). Analytica Chimica Acta, 394, 81.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Swartz, ME. & Krull, IS. (1997). Analytical method development and validation. Marcel Dekker, New York.

  24. Tran, T. N. (1992). Analysis of urine and seawater samples by ultrasonic nebulization with a high resolution ICP spectrometer ICP-AES Instruments at work (varian).

  25. Turkoğlu, M., Parlak, H., & BüyükıŞık, B. (1992). A comparative study on Crtot concentrations of water, sediment and some benthic organism of Izmir Bay. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit., 33, 86.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Turkoğlu, M. & Parlak, H. (1999). Accumulation and distribution of total chromium in seawater, sediment, and some organisms and its behaviour processes in Izmir Bay (Agean Sea). Ege University Journal of Fish Aquatic Sciences, 16, 47–58.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Süren, E. (2004). Determination of some toxic heavy metals in the Dardanellles by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and electroanalytic methods. master thesis, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Natural and Applied Sciences Institute.

  28. Van den Berg, C.M.G. (1986). Determination of copper, cadmium and lead in seawater by cathodic stripping voltammetry of complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 215, 111.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Vanysek, P. Modern Technigues in Electroanalysis; Part: Stripping Analysis, p. 177, A wiley-interscience publication.

  30. Yıldız, A. & Genç, ö. (1993). Instrumnental analysis book, p.~378, Hacettepe University Publication, Ankara.

  31. Yılmaz, S. (2001). The application to pharmaceutical preparations and environmentalanalysis of the Adsorptive Stripping voltammetry. Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology of Gazi University, 14(4), 1289.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Zirino, A., Liebrman, S.H., Healy, M.L., Berkowitz, J.B., Horne, R., Banus, M., Howard, P.L., Pryor, M.J., Whitnack, G.C., & Weisss, H.V. (1973). (Eds) in Marina Electrochemistry. The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, NJ, p. 319.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Selahattin Yilmaz.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Süren, E., Yilmaz, S., Türkoglu, M. et al. Concentrations of cadmium and lead heavy metals in Dardanelles seawater. Environ Monit Assess 125, 91–98 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9242-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • Lead
  • Heavy metals
  • Oxine
  • Seawater
  • Waste water
  • Water pollution
  • Adsorptive stripping voltammetry
  • Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry