The air quality Framework Directive (FWD) and the correspondent Daughter Directives defined the new strategy for air quality management in Europe. In general, the new standards are more restrictive than those established by the previous legislation. In Portugal, some difficulties can be previewed to achieve those new standards. Thus, this paper aims at evaluating the impact of application of the FWD to Oporto Metropolitan Area in what concerns to the most critical air pollutants in the area (PM10 and O3). The specific objectives were: i) to analyse the concentration exceedances between 1999 and 2001; ii) to identify the main emission sources; iii) to evaluate the possibility of a new redistribution of the existing monitoring sites; iv) to contribute to the definition of a new strategy for air quality management. The results showed that; i) the standard values for PM10 and O3 were largely surpassed, possibly concluding that the FWD application implies a strong impact on the air quality management strategies; ii) the main emission sources (road traffic and the neighbour stationary sources localised upwind) affect all the Metropolitan area through intra-region pollutant transport; iii) it is safer maintaining the site localisation to avoid previewing exceedances through mathematical correlations; iv) the reduction of PM10 and of ozone precursors must be performed considering new technologies for ‘cleaner production’ and gaseous depuration, a rigorous urban and territory planning, the creation of an efficient public transport network and the definition of strict measures for car maintenance.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ajuntament de Barcelona, http://www.bnc.es (access in January 2003).
Borrego, C., Barros, N., Gomes, P., Coutinho, M., Tchepel, O., Lopes, M. and Miranda, A. I.: 2000, ‘Application of the Air Quality Framework Directive to Portugal: A Strategic Evaluation’, in J. Longurst, D. Elson and H. Power (eds), Air Quality Management, WIT Press. 1–39.
Borrego, C., Miranda, A. I., Coutinho, M., Ferreira, J. and Carvalho, A. C.: 2002, ‘Air quality management in Portugal: Example of needs and available tools’, Environ. Pollut. 120, 115–123.
Branis, M. and Domasová, M.: 2003, ‘PM10 and black smoke in a small settlement: Case study from Czech Republic’, Atmos. Envi. 37, 83–92.
Brunekreef, B. and Holgate, S. T.: 2002, ‘Air pollution and health’, Lancet 360, 1233–1242.
Colvile, R. N., Hutchinson, E. J., Mindell, J. S. and Warren, R. F.: 2001, ‘The transport sector as a source of air pollution’, Atmos. Environ. 35, 1537–1565.
Decreto Lei n° 111/2002, Ministério do Ambiente e do Ordenamento do Território, Diário da República, 89, I-Série A.
Dockery, D. W. and Pope III, C. A.: 1994, ‘Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution’, Ann. Rev. Public Health. 15, 107–132.
EC Directive: 1996, ‘Council Directive 96/62/EC, relating to evaluation and management of ambient air quality’, OJ L 296, 55–63.
EC Directive: 1999, ‘Council Directive 99/30/EC, relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air’, OJ L 163, 41–60.
EC Directive: 2000, ‘Council Directive 00/69/EC, relating to limit values for carbon monoxide and benzene in ambient air’, OJ L 313, 12–21.
EC Directive: 2002, ‘2002/3/EC of the European Parliament and the Council relating to ozone in ambient air’, OJ L 67, 14–30.
European Environment Agency: 2002, ‘Environmental Signals 2002: Benchmarking the Millennium’, Copenhagen.
Guicherit, R. and Roemer, M.: 2000, ‘Tropospheric ozone trends’, Chemosphere, Glob. Change Sci. 2, 167–183.
Larssen, S., Barret, K. J., Fiala, J., Goodwin, J., Hagen, L. O., Henriksen, J. F., Leeuw, F. and Tarrason, L.: 2003, ‘Air Quality in Europe: State and Trends 1990−99’, European Environment Agency Copenhagen.
Lazaridis, M., Semb, A., Larssen, S., Hjellbrekke, A., Hov, Ø., Hanssen, J. E., Schaug, J. and TØrseth, K.: 2002, ‘Measurements of particulate matter within the framework of the European monitoring and evaluation programme (EMEP) I. First Results’, Sci. Total Environ. 285, 209–235.
Mairie de Paris: 2002, ‘La Lutte Contre la Pollution Atmosphérique à Paris: Bilan et Perspectives, Avant-propos: La Concentration Urbaine et ses Conséquences’.
McConnell, R., Berhane, K., Gilliland, F., London, S., Islam, T., Gauderman, W., Avol, E., Margolis, H. and Peters, J.: 2002, ‘Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: A cohort study’, Lancet 359, 386–391.
Neuberger, M., Moshammer, H. and Kundi, M.: 2002, ‘Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children’, Atmos. Environ. 36, 1733–1736.
Pereira, M. C., Alvim Ferraz, M. C. M. and Santos, R. C.: 2002, ‘Air quality evaluation on a Portuguese urban area according to the New European legislation’, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 3(Special issue), 40.
Pont, V. and Fontan, J.: 2000, ‘Local and regional contributions to photochemical atmospheric pollution in southern France’, Atmos. Environ. 34, 5209–5223.
Portaria n° 623/96, Ministérios da Economia e do Ambiente, Diário da República, 253, I-Série B.
Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N.: 1998, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, A Wiley-Interscience Publication NY.
Smith, G., Coulston, J., Jepsen, E. and Prichard, T.: 2003, ‘A national ozone biomonitoring program-results from field surveys of ozone sensitive plants in Northeastern forests (1994−2000)’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 87, 271–291.
Stieb, D. M., Judek, S. and Burnett, R. T.: 2002, ‘Meta-analysis of time series studies of air pollution and mortality: Effects of gas particles and the influence of cause of death, age and season’, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 4–470.
World Health Organization (WHO): 2000, Air Quality Guidelines, WHO Regional Office, Copenhagen.
About this article
Cite this article
PEREIRA, M.C., ALVIM-FERRAZ, M.C.M. & SANTOS, R.C. RELEVANT ASPECTS OF AIR QUALITY IN OPORTO (PORTUGAL): PM10 AND O3. Environ Monit Assess 101, 203–221 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-9157-6
- air pollution
- air quality
- European legislation