Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 121, Issue 1–3, pp 65–75 | Cite as

Productivity and Distribution of Epipellic Microalgae Along Salinity Gradients in Mangrove Swamp of the Qua Iboe Estuary (NIGERIA)

  • J. P. EssienEmail author
  • R. M. Ubom
  • S. P. Antai
Article

Abstract

Based on spatial variation in tidal mud salinity, direct gradient analysis procedures were adopted to relate the productivity and distribution of epipellic microalgae along salinity gradients in mangrove swamp of the Qua Iboe Estuary. Variations in mud salinities were due to distance from the coast, tidal incursions and freshwater input. The dilution effect of fresh water input from rainfall, urban runoff and associated freshwater creeks was most severe during the rainy season month of July, with much lower salinity levels recorded, in comparison to higher salinity values, recorded for same sampling locations during the drier month of December. In the dry season, all the microalgae species but Closterium (a genus of soft, green algae) and Oscillatoria (a cyanobacterium) species encountered in the tidal mud flats showed statistically significant negative correlations with salinity, while most microalgae species excluding Oscillatoria and Closterium species were positively correlated with the same factor during the wet season. Four Ecological Groups of microalgae, were established in the dry season month of December as against two Ecological Groups in the wet season month of July. However no microalgae species was found to occur on the highest values of mud salinity and there were overlapping range of occurrences and ecological optima for most species along the gradients.

Keywords

epipellic microalgae salinity gradients mangrove swamp 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Carmichael, W. W.: 1981, The Water Environment: Algal Toxins and Health, Plenum press, New York, pp 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cassie, V.: 1961, Marine Phytoplankton in New Zealand Waters (Illustrations), De-Cruyter.Google Scholar
  3. Chapman, V. J.: 1976, ‘Mangrove Vegetation’, J. Cramer Publ. Co. Vaduz.Google Scholar
  4. Citron, G., Lugo, A. E., Pool, D. J. and Moris, G.: 1978, ‘Mangroves and environments in Puerto Rico and adjacent Islands’, Biotropica 10, 110–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cochran, W. G.: 1963, ‘Sampling Techniques’, 2nd edn., Wiley Eastern Ltd New Delhi, 413p.Google Scholar
  6. Depledge, M. H. and Rainbow, P. S.: 1990, ‘Models of regulation and accumulation of trace metals in marine invertebrates: A mini-review’, Compar. Biochem. Physiol. 97c, 1–7.Google Scholar
  7. Essien, J. P. and Ubom R. M.: 2003, ‘Epipellic algae profile of the mixohaline mangrove swamp of Qua Iboe River Estuary (Nigeria)’, The Environmentalist 23(4), 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Essien, J. P. and Antai, S. P.: 2004, ‘Negative effects of oil spill on beach microalgae in Nigeria’, World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 24(4), 567–573.Google Scholar
  9. Good, R. E.: 1972, ‘Salt marsh production and salinity’, Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 53, 22–34.Google Scholar
  10. Han, M.: 1978, ‘Illustration of Freshwater Planktons’, Academic press, London p. 85.Google Scholar
  11. Moore, R. E.: 1980a, ‘Toxins and Marine Blue-Green algae’, in: W. W. Carmichael (ed.), The Water Environment: Algal Toxins and Health. Plenum Pres, New York, pp. 15–23.Google Scholar
  12. Moore, R. E.: 1981b, ‘Constituents of Blue Green Algae’, in: P. Schever (ed.), Marine Natural Products Vol. 4, Academic Press London, pp. 1–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Odum, W. E., McIvor, C. C. and Smith III, T. J.: 1982, The Ecology of the Mangroves of South Florida: A Community Profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-81-24.Google Scholar
  14. Opute, F. I.: 1990, ‘Phytoplankton flora of the Warri – Forcados Estuaries of Southern Nigeria’, Hydrobiologia 208, 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Opute, F. I.: 1991, ‘A check list of marine phytoplankton’, Nigeria Journal of Botany 4, 227–254.Google Scholar
  16. Perez-Ilorens, J. L., Benitez, E., Vergara J. J. and Berges, J. A.: 2003, ‘Characterization of proteolytic enzyme activities in macroalgae’, European Journal of Phycology 38, 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Snedaker, S. C.: 1989, ‘Overview of mangroves and information needs for Florida Bay’, Bulletin of Marine Science 44(1), 341–347.Google Scholar
  18. Ubom, R. M. and Essien, J. P.: 2003, ‘Distribution and significance of epipsammic algae in the coastal shore (Ibeno beach) of Qua Iboe River Estuary, Nigeria’, The Environmentalist 2, 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ubom, R. M.: 1998, ‘Responses of plant species to environmental gradients in Isoberlinia woodlands of Northwestern Nigeria’, Tropical Ecology 39(1), 39–54.Google Scholar
  20. Ukpong, I. E.: 1991, ‘The performance and distribution of species along soil salinity gradients of mangrove swamps in Southeastern Nigeria’, Vegetatio 95, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ukpong, I. E.: 1995, ‘Vegetation and soil acidity of mangrove swamp in Southeastern Nigeria’, Soil Use and Management 11, 141–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Walsh, G. E.: 1974, ‘Mangroves: A review’, in: R. Reimold and H. Queen (eds.), Ecology of Halophytes. Academic Press, New York, pp. 51–174.Google Scholar
  23. Waring, R. H. and Major, K.: 1964, ‘Some vegetation of the California coastal redwood region in relation to gradients of moisture, nutrients, light and temperature’, Ecological Monograph 34, 167–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Whittaker, R. H.: 1978, ‘Direct gradient analysis’, in: R.H. Wittaker (ed.), Ordination of Plant Communities. Handbook of Vegetation Science. 5D. W. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  25. Wikum, D. A. and Wali, M. K.: 1974, ‘Analysis of North Dakota gallery forest: Vegetation in relation to topographic and salt gradients’, Ecological Monographs 44, 441–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Woodhead, N. and Tweed, R.: 1960, ‘A second checklist of tropical West African Algae (Fresh and Brackish Water)’, Hydrobiologia 15, 225–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yakubu, A. F., Sikoki, F. D. and Horesfall, Jr. M.: 1998, ‘An investigation into the physicochemical conditions and planktonic organisms of the lower reaches of the Nun River Nigeria’, Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 1, 38–42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology UnitUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Botany and MicrobiologyUniversity of UyoUyoNigeria

Personalised recommendations