Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 107, Issue 1–3, pp 399–406 | Cite as

Quantification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tea and Coffee Samples of Mumbai City (India) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • Narsi R. BishnoiEmail author
  • Urvashi Mehta
  • Umashanker Sain
  • G. G. Pandit


This paper describes a method for quantification of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee samples of Mumbai City with the help of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV-VIS detector. This method is based on liquid–liquid extraction followed by clean up with C-18 cartridge. Concentration of total PAHs in different brands of tea and coffee samples varied from 18.79 to 31.37 μg/L and from 16.47 to 18.24 μg/L, respectively. Mean concentration of total PAHs was 27.56 μg/L in tea and 17.20 μg/L in coffee. Recoveries at different concentration levels were higher than 68% in samples of tea and coffee. Detection limit was found to be low (0.0006 ng) for anthracene and highest (0.174 ng) for naphthalene with relative standard deviation between 0.4%–7%.


coffee extraction hexane high performance liquid chromatography polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon tea 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Al-Omran, L. A. and Rao, C. V. N.: 1997, ‘Hydrocarbons in the intertidal areas of Kuwait’, Intern. J. Environ. Studies 53, 31–41.Google Scholar
  2. Beak, S. O., Field, R., Geldstone, M. E. Kirk, P. W. and Perry, R.: 1991, ‘A review of atmospheric polycylic hydrocarbon: Sources fate and behaviour’, Water Air Soil Pollut. 10, 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boffetta, P., Jourenkova, N. and Gustavsson, P.: 1997, ‘Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’, Cancer Causes Control 8, 444–472.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Edwards, N. T.: 1983, ‘Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in terrestrial environment’, Rev. J. Environ. Qual. 12, 421–441.Google Scholar
  5. Freeman, D. J. and Cattell, F. C. R.: 1990, ‘Wood burning as source of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’, Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 1581–1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. IARC: 1983, ‘Monographs on the Evolution of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemical to Human Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds’ Part 1: Chemical environmental and experimental data, Vol. 32, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, pp. 477.Google Scholar
  7. IPCS: 1998, ‘Selected Nonheterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons’, International Programme on Chemical Safety World Health Organisation, Geneva.Google Scholar
  8. Kayadi-Sayadi, M. N., Rubio-Barroso, S., Cesta-Jimenez, M. P. and Polo-Diez, L. M.: 1998, ‘Rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea influence samples by liquid chromatography and fluorimetric detection based on solid phase extraction’, Analyst 128, 29–56.Google Scholar
  9. Lawrence, J. F. and Weber, D. F.: 1984, ‘Determination of PHA in Canadian sample of processed vegetables and dairy products by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection’, J. Agric. Food. Chem. 32, 794–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mackay, D. and Clark, K. E.: 1991, ‘Predicting the Environmental Partitioning of Organic Contaminants and Their Transfer to Biota: In Organic Contaminants in the Environment’, In: K. J., Jones (ed) Environmental Pathways and Effects, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Naumova, Y. Y., Eisenceich, S. T., Turkin, B. J., Weisel, C. P., Morandi, M. T., Stock, T. H., Winner, A. M. and Alimokhataki, S.: 2001. ‘Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in indoor and outdoor air of three cities in U.S.A’, Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 2552–2559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nieva-Cano, M. J., Rubio-Barroso, S. and Santos-Delago, M. J.: 2001. ‘Determination of PAH in food samples by HPLC with fluorimetric following sonication extraction without sample cleanup’, Analyst 126, 1326–1331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Pereira-Netto, A. D., Barreto R. P., Moreira, J. C. and Arbilla, G.: 2001. ‘Preliminary comparison of PAHs in total suspended particulate samples taken at Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro Cities, Brazil’, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 66, 36–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Samsoe-Petersen, L., Larsen, E. L. and Larsen, P. B.: 2002. ‘Uptake of trace elements and PAHs by fruits and vegetables from contaminated soils’, Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 3057–3063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Stall, W. and Einsenbrand, G.: 1988, HPLC in Food Analysis, R. Macrae (ed), Academic press, New York, pp. 377–408.Google Scholar
  16. Wise, S. A., Sander, L. C. and May, W.: 1993, ‘Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by liquid chromatography’, J. Chromat. 642, 329–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Yang, H. H., Leu, W. J., Chen, S. J. and Lai, S. O.: 1998, ‘PAH emission from various industrial stacks’, J. Hazar. Mater. 60, 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. WHO.: 1984, Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Vol II, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  19. Zebek, M. S.: 1980, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon’: A review’, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 3, 537–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narsi R. Bishnoi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Urvashi Mehta
    • 1
  • Umashanker Sain
    • 1
  • G. G. Pandit
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science & EngineeringGuru Jambheshwar UniversityHisarIndia

Personalised recommendations