Skip to main content
Log in

Insight into inducing disease resistance with Allorhizobium vitis strain ARK-1, a biological control agent against grapevine crown gall disease

  • Published:
European Journal of Plant Pathology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The nonpathogenic strain ARK-1 of Allorhizobium vitis has an antagonistic activity toward the tumorigenic (Ti) strain of A. vitis and works as a biocontrol agent, but the biocontrol mechanism in plants needs to be better understood. Inoculations of ARK-1 or Ti strain induced expression of marker genes for defense-related phytohormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene in grapevine within 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). Inoculation of Ti strain 5 days after ARK-1 pre-inoculation induced expression of the marker genes except for the LOX-9 gene in a similar manner to those without the pre-inoculation, suggesting that ARK-1 did not induce typical acquired systemic resistance. However, the transcript of LOX-9 was detected at 24 and 48 hpi with Ti strain when ARK-1 was pre-inoculated, unlike the uninoculated condition. ARK-1 primed the induction of certain defense genes, and it may take part in its biocontrol activity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


Download references


We are grateful to Dr. K. Inoue (Research Institute for Agriculture, Okayama Prefectural Technology Center for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) who gave us much useful advice.


This research was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI Grant) 17H03778 and 20K20572 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan to A. Kawaguchi and Y. Noutoshi.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Akira Kawaguchi.

Ethics declarations

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest, the study described is original, has not been published previously. All authors consent to this submission. All authors have contributions on every part of the study.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (XLSX 13 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kawaguchi, A., Noutoshi, Y. Insight into inducing disease resistance with Allorhizobium vitis strain ARK-1, a biological control agent against grapevine crown gall disease. Eur J Plant Pathol 162, 981–987 (2022).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: