Skip to main content

Foliar Spray of Silicon Enhances Resistance against Pyricularia oryzae by Triggering Phytoalexin Responds in Aerobic Rice

Abstract

Rice blast (caused by Pyricularia oryzae) is the most devastative disease threatening sustainability rice production. The role of silicon as a foliar application in biochemical defence involvement towards P. oryzae infection in aerobic rice remains unclear. The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of silicon (Si) as a foliar spray in triggering phytoalexin synthesis to increase resistance against P. oryzae infection on two aerobic rice cultivars MR219-4 (partially resistant to rice blast) and MARDI Aerob 1 (resistant). Three Si sources: calcium silicate, silica oxide and sodium metasilicate were tested at 3, 6, and 9 mg/L against P. oryzae infection. Foliar application of calcium silicate at 9 mg/L significantly reduced rice blast disease severity to 0.11% (MARDI Aerob 1) and 3.30% (MR219-4). In vitro screenings of phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A) against P. oryzae revealed that sakuranetin is more prominent to inhibit P. oryzae in both solid and liquid media. The expression of sakuranetin was further quantified from Si-mediated rice seedlings after challenge inoculated with P. oryzae. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that sakuranetin in both Si-mediated rice seedlings inoculated with P. oryzae significantly increased at 2nd DAI with 0.13 mg/mL in MARDI Aerob 1 and 0.48 mg/mL in MR219-4 compared with control (without Si foliar application). These results emphasized calcium silicate as foliar spray augmented resistance to P. oryzae infection by prolonging sakuranetin accumulation as one of the mechanisms that strengthening the rice plant health besides physiological barrier mechanism in the aerobic rice.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Ahmad, A., Afzal, M., Ahmad, A. U. H., & Tahir, M. (2013). Effect of foliar application of silicon on yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L). Cercetari agronomice in Moldova, 46, 21–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bowen, P. A., Menzies, J. G., & Ehret, D. L. (1992). Soluble silicon sprays inhibit powdery mildew development on grape leaves. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 117, 906–912.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cacique, I. S., Domiciano, G. P., Moreira, W. R., Rodrigues, F. Á., Cruz, M. F. A., Serra, N. S., & Català, A. B. (2013). Effect of root and leaf applications of soluble silicon on blast development in rice. Bragantia, 72, 304–309.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cai, K., Gao, D., Luo, S., Zen, R., Yang, J., & Zhu, X. (2008). Physiological and cytological mechanisms of silicon-induced resistance in rice against blast disease. Physiologia Plantarum, 134, 324–333.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chérif, M., Asselin, A., & Bélanger, R. (1994). Defence responses induced by soluble silicon in cucumber roots infected by Pythium spp. Phytopathology, 84, 236–242.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dallagnol, L. J., Rodrigues, F. A., DaMatta, F. M., Mielli, M. V., & Pereira, S. C. (2011). Deficiency in silicon uptake affects cytological, physiological, and biochemical events in the rice-Bipolaris oryzae interaction. Phytopathology, 101, 92–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Datnoff, L. E., Deren, C. W., & Snyder, G. H. (1997). Silicon fertilization for disease management of rice in Florida. Crop Protection, 16, 525–531.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dillon, V. M., Jonathan, O., Renee, J. G., & Jeffrey, B. H. (1997). Different in phytoalexin response among rice cultivars of different resistance to blast. Phytochemistry, 44, 599–603.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, E. (1994). The anomaly of silicon in plant biology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1993. USA: PNAS, 91, 11–17.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fauteux, F., Remus-Borel, W., Menzies, J. G., & Belanger, R. R. (2005). Silicon and plant disease resistance against pathogenic fungi. FEMS Microbiology Letter, 249, 1–6.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fawe, A., Abou-Zaid, M., Menzies, J. G., & Bélanger, R. R. (1998). Silicon mediated accumulation of flavonoid phytoalexins in cucumber. Phytopathology, 88, 396–401.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fawe, A., Menzies, J. G., Cherif, M., & Bélanger, R. R. (2001). Silicon and disease resistance in dicotyledons. In L. E. Datnoff, G. H. Snyder, & G. H. Korndörfer (Eds.), Silicon in agriculture studies in plant science (pp. 159–169). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Fortunato, A. A., Debona, D., Bernardeli, A. M. A., & Rodrigues, F. A. (2015). Defence-related enzymes in soybean resistance to target spot. Journal of Phytopathology, 163, 731–742.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hasegawa, M., Mitsuhara, I., Seo, S., Imai, T., Koga, J., Okada, K., Yamane, H., & Ohashi, Y. (2010). Phytoalexin accumulation in the interaction between rice and the blast fungus. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 23, 1000–1011.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hasegawa, M., Mitsuhara, I., Seo, S., Okada, K., Yamane, H., Iwai, T., & Ohashi, Y. (2014). Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus. Molecules, 19, 11404–11418.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayasaka, T., Fujii, H., & Ishiguro, K. (2008). The role of silicon in preventing appressorial penetration by the rice blast fungus. Phytopathology, 98, 1038–1044.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, S. G., Kim, K. W., Park, E. W., & Choi, D. (2002). Silicon-induced cell wall fortification of rice leaves: A possible cellular mechanism of enhanced host resistance to blast. Phytopathology, 92, 1095–1103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knight, C. T. G., & Kinrade, S. D. (2001). A primer on the aqueous chemistry of silicon. In L. E. Datnoff, G. H. Snyder, & G. H. Korndörfer (Eds.), Silicon in agriculture studies in plant science (pp. 57–84). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Kodama, O., Miyakawa, J., Akatsuka, T., & Kiyasawa, S. (1992). Sakuranetin, a flavanone phytoalexin from ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves. Phytochemistry, 31, 3807–3809.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laane, H. M. (2018). The effects of foliar sprays with different silicon compounds. Plants, 7(45), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants7020045.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liang, Y. C., Sun, W., Si, J., & Römheld, V. (2005). Effects of foliar-and root-applied silicon on the enhancement of induced resistance to powdery mildew in Cucumis sativus. Plant Pathology, 54, 678–685.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ng, L. C., Elham, S. H., Othman, S., & Razi, I. M. R. (2018). Effect of foliar application of calcium silicate on rice blast development in aerobic rice cultivation. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 153, 533–543.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ogbebo, R. N., & Adekunle, A. T. (2005). Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola (berk and curt) of rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) using extracts of some plants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 996–1000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Puppe, D., & Sommer, M. (2018). Silicon foliar fertilizer-a review focusing on maize, rice and wheat. Bragantia, 72, 304–309.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rémus-Borel, W., Menzies, J. G., & Bélanger, R. R. (2005). Silicon induces antifungal compounds in powdery mildew-infected wheat. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 66, 108–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodrigues, F. Á., McNally, D. J., Datnoff, L. E., Jones, J. B., Labbé, C., Benhamou, N., & Bélanger, R. R. (2004). Silicon enhances the accumulation of diterpenoid phytoalexins in rice: A potential mechanism for blast resistance. Phytopathology, 94, 177–183.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seebold, K. W., Datnof, J. L. E., Correa-Victoria, F., Kucharek, T. A., & Snyder, G. H. (2004). Effects of silicon as fungicides on the control of leaf and neck blast in upland rice. Plant Disease, 88, 253–258.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Song, A., Li, P., Fan, F., Li, Z., & Liang, Y. (2014). The effect of silicon on photosynthesis and expression of its relevant genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under high-zinc stress. PLoS One, 9, 1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Takahashi, E., Ma, J. F., & Miyake, Y. (1990). The possibility of silicon as an essential element for higher plants. Comments on Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2, 99–102.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Van, B. J., Spíchal, L., Novák, O., Strnad, M., Asano, T., Kikuchi, S., et al. (2015). Silicon induces resistance to the brown spot fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus by preventing the pathogen from hijacking the rice ethylene pathway. New Phytologist, 206, 761–773.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yogende, N. D., Kumara, B. H., Chandrashektar, N., Prakash, N. B., Anantha, M. S., & Jeyadeva, H. M. (2014). Effect of silicon on real time nitrogen management in a rice ecosystem. African Journal of Agricultural, 9, 831–840.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the Malaysia Higher Education Ministry for the Research grant administered through the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2014/STWN03/UMT/02/4), the Laboratory of Pest, Disease and Microbial Biotechnology (LAPDiM), Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science (FFFS), the Institute of Oceanography and Environment (INOS), central laboratory of Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. Besides, the authors would also like to thank Prof Dr. Morifumi Hasegawa from the College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Japan for providing us the momilactone A.

Funding

This study was supported in part by the grant in aid for the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme under the Ministry of Educational Malaysia (FRGS/1/2014/STWN03/UMT/02/4). This manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lee Chuen Ng.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ng, L.C., Adila, Z.N., Shahrul Hafiz, E.M. et al. Foliar Spray of Silicon Enhances Resistance against Pyricularia oryzae by Triggering Phytoalexin Responds in Aerobic Rice. Eur J Plant Pathol 159, 673–683 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-020-02197-1

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-020-02197-1

Keywords

  • Foliar spray
  • Silicon
  • Aerobic rice
  • Pyricularia oryzae
  • Phytoalexins
  • Sakuranetin