Downy mildew in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L) was first recorded in Israel in late 2011. Within one year, the disease was reported all over the country, causing devastating economic damage to basil crops. The pathogen was reported to have similarly spread widely in Europe, the USA and Asia. Seed transmission and seedling trade were suggested as possible causes for rapid spread. Here, we report that some members of the Labiatae family beside O. basilicum serve as hosts of Peronospora belbahrii in Israel, thus possibly aiding its spread and survival. One hundred and two entries of Labiatae (Syn Lamiaceae), belonging to 22 genera and 53 species, were tested for sensitivity to P. belbahrii in artificial-inoculated plants in growth chambers and in field. Following artificial inoculation of potted plants in growth chambers and of field-grown plants, sporulation of P. belbahrii was observed in seven species: Salvia eigii, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia pinnata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nepeta curviflora, Micromeria fruticosa, and Agastache spp. Six other entries (belonging to four other genera) showed small chlorotic spots but not sporulation. All other entries were symptom-free. This is the first report showing pathogenicity of P. belbahrii to Salvia, Rosmarinus, Nepeta and Micromeria spp. in Israel. Whether these species play a role in the epidemiology of basil downy mildew in Israel needs to be studied.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Similar content being viewed by others
Belbahri, L., Calmin, G., Lefort, F., & Pawlowski, J. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis and real time PCR detection of a new Peronospora species responsible for downy mildew disease of sweet basil and sage. Mycological Research, 109, 1276–1287.
Ben-Naim, Y., Falach, L., & Cohen, Y. (2015). Resistance against basil downy mildew in Ocimum species. Phytopathology, 105, 778–785.
Ben-Naim, Y., Falach, L., & Cohen, Y. (2017). Host range of Peronospora belbahrii, the causal agent of basil downy mildew. Phytoparasitica, 45, 260–261.
Ben-Naim, Y., Falach, L., & Cohen, Y. (2018). Transfer of downy mildew resistance from wild basil (Ocimum americanum) to sweet basil (O. basilicum). Phytopathology, 108, 114–123.
Choi, Y. J., Shin, H. D., & Thines, M. (2009). Two novel Peronospora species are associated with recent reports of downy mildew on sages. Mycological Research, 113, 1340–1350.
Cohen, Y., Vaknin, M., Ben-Naim, Y., & Rubin, A. E. (2013a). Light suppresses sporulation and epidemics of Peronospora belbahrii. PLoS One, 8, e81282.
Cohen, Y., Vaknin, M., Ben-Naim, Y., Rubin, A. E., Galperin, M., Silverman, D., Bitton, S., & Adler, U. (2013b). First report of the occurrence and resistance to mefenoxam of Peronospora belbahrii, causal agent of downy mildew of basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Israel. Plant Disease, 97, 692.
Cohen, Y., Ben Naim, Y., Falach, L., & Rubin, A. E. (2017). Epidemiology of basil downy mildew. Phytopathology, 107, 1149–1160.
Coosemans, J. (2004). First report of Peronospora lamii, downy mildew on basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Belgium. Parasitica, 60, 27.
Denton, G. J., Beal, E., Denton, J. O., & Clover, G. (2015). First record of downy mildew, caused by Peronospora belbahrii, on Solenostemon scutellarioides in the UK. New Dis. Rep., 31, 14.
Falach-Block, L., Ben-Naim, Y., & Cohen, Y. (2018). Systemicity of Peronospora belbahrii in basil plants. Phytoparasitica, 46, 313.
Farahani-Kofoet, R. D., Roemer, P., & Grosch, R. (2012). Systemic spread of downy mildew in basil plants and detection of the pathogen in seed and plant samples. Mycological Progress, 11, 961–966.
Farahani-Kofoet, R. D., Römer, P., & Grosch, R. (2014). Selecting basil genotypes with resistance against downy mildew. Scientia Horticulturae, 179, 248–255.
Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., Minuto, G., & Gullino, M. L. (2004a). First report of downy mildew on basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Italy. Plant Disease, 88, 312.
Garibaldi, A., Minuto, G., Bertetti, D., & Gullino, M. L. (2004b). Seed transmission of Peronospora sp of basil. Journal Plant Dis Protection, 111, 465–469.
Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., & Gullino, M. L. (2005). First report of downy mildew caused by Peronospora sp on basil (Ocimum basilicum) in France. Plant Disease, 89, 683.
Hansford, C. G. (1933). Annual report of the mycologist. Review Applied Mycologica, 12, 421–422.
Harlan, B., Linderman, S., Hyatt, L., & Hausbeck, M. (2015). Research gives clues for preventing coleus downy mildew. Greenhouse Grower, published online March, 11, 2015.
Harley, R. M., Atkins, S., Budantsev, A. L., Cantino, P. D., Conn, B. J., Grayer, R. J., Harley, M. M., de Kok, R. P. J., Krestovskaja, T. V., Morales, R., Paton, A. J., & Ryding, O. (2004). Labiatae. Pages 167–275 in: Flowering Plants - Dicotyledons. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Labiatae.
Henricot, B., Denton, J., Scrace, J., Barnes, A. V., & Lane, C. R. (2010). Peronospora belbahrii causing downy mildew disease on Agastache in the UK: A new host and location for the pathogen. Plant Pathology, 59, 801.
Heywood, V. H., Brummitt, R. K., Culham, A., & Seberg, O. (2007). Flowering plant families of the world. Firefly Books, Ontario, Canada. ISBN 978-1-55407-206-4.
Koroch, A. R., Villani, T. S., Pyne, R. M., & Simon, J. E. (2013). Rapid staining method to detect and identify downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) in basil. Applications in Plant Sciences, 1, 1300032.
Pyne, R. M., Koroch, A. R., Wyenandt, C. A., & Simon, J. E. (2014). A rapid screening approach to identify resistance to basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii). HortScience, 49, 1041–1045.
Rivera, Y., Salgado-Salazar, C., Creswell, T. C., Ruhl, G., & Crouch, J. A. (2016a). First report of downy mildew vaused by Peronospora sp on Agastache sp in the United States. Plant Disease, 100, 1249–1250.
Rivera, Y., Salgado-Salazar, C., Windham, A. S., & Crouch, J. A. (2016b). Downy mildew on Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) caused by Peronospora belbahrii sensu lato in Tennessee. Plant Disease, 100, 655.
Thines, M., Telle, S., Ploch, S., & Runge, F. (2009). Identity of the downy mildew pathogens of basil, coleus, and sage with implications for quarantine measures. Mycological Research, 113, 532–540.
Webb, K., Sansford, C., MacLeod, A., & Matthews-Berry, S. (2012). Rapid assessment of the need for a detailed Pest risk analysis for Peronospora belbahrii. UK Risk Register Details for Peronospora belbahrii. UK Plant HealthRisk Register (DEFRA). https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/viewPestRisks.cfm?cslref=26813.
Wright, K. (2014). Outdoor herbs: Epidmiology and control of downy mildew in sage, parsley, mint and basil under protection. HDC Final Report of Project FV390.
Wyenandt, C. A., Simon, J. E., McGrath, M. T., & Ward, D. L. (2010). Susceptibility of basil cultivars and breeding lines to downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii). HortScience, 45, 1416–1419.
We thank Eyal Klein of Hishtil Ltd. for supplying seeds and plant material.
Conflict of interest
This work was not submitted for publication to another journal. All authors listed have contributed to the work, have read the manuscript and declare that there are no potential conflicts of interest. This research was supported by Research Grant No. US-4947-16 R from BARD, the United States - Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund, and by a research grant from the Plant Council, Israel.
About this article
Cite this article
Naim, Y.B., Falach-Block, L., Ben-Daniel, BH. et al. Host range of Peronospora belbahrii, causal agent of basil downy mildew, in Israel. Eur J Plant Pathol 155, 789–799 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-019-01809-9