Bois noir affects the yield and wine quality of Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Chardonnay’
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The Bois noir (BN) disease induced by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (CPs) is common in European vineyards. Its damage has not been fully investigated, especially with regards to wine attributes. The impact of BN on yield, berry composition and wine characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Chardonnay’ was therefore comprehensively characterized in a 3-year field experiment in Hungary, Eger winegrowing region. Additionally, the bindweed-related tuf-b1 genotype was identified to be involved in the BN pathosystem in the experimental vineyard. Infection of CPs tuf-b1 genotype resulted in severe yield loss, the average decrease in number of bunches and total yield per vine was 56.7% and 68.4%, respectively. Analyses of wines produced from grapes of BN infected vines revealed decreased alcohol, epicatechin and iron contents; and increased organic acids, titratable acidity, catechin and calcium contents. Sensory evaluation of these wines confirmed unfavourable characteristics, i.e. higher acidity, bitterness, and usually pinkish discolouration. Negative impact on berry composition and wine quality were pronounced in the vintage with favourable weather conditions for grapevine production, whereas the negative effects of BN infection were less prominent, even masked, in the vintages with unfavourable weather (wet and cool). To reduce BN-caused damage, the need for improved preventative and curative measures for BN disease is highlighted.
Keywords‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ Bindweed Tuf Grapevine yellows Phenolic compounds Yield loss Wine quality
We thank Dr. Szabolcs Villangó and Xenia Pálfi for providing meteorological data, as well as István Patai, Zsolt Pálmai, Tamás Lénárd, and Tamás Vincze for their help in the wine preparation process. We thank our colleagues in the Department of Viticulture and the Department of Oenology; and students Eszter Pájer, Bence Czigány, Dorottya Pál and Norbert Simó, for their help with measurements. We also thank Drs. Mária Kölber, Rita Lózsa, István Fazekas and Prof. Miklós Kállay for their valuable comments and Michael Maixner for tuf reference isolates. This project was funded by the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund of the Hungarian Government (KTIA_AIK_12-1-2013-0001) and partly funded by OTKA Research Grant (ID: 113223).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
This research does not include any animal and/or human trials.
The authors bear all the ethical responsibilities of this manuscript.
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