The concept of functional groups (set of species having similar physiological, ecological or life-history traits) has been largely used for plants, microorganisms, nematodes or insects in agroecosystems. However, this concept has been rarely applied to describe assemblages of plant pathogens. Yet, classification systems in plant pathology resemble this functional approach, as they address different disease processes or life history traits. In this review, we discuss advantages and drawbacks of current classification systems in relation to their application to the ecological management of crop diseases. Then, we propose to reorganize one of the classical plant-pathogen systems in a dichotomous key of functional groups obtained by combining two life-history traits: dispersal and survival strategies. The six functional groups proposed here are soil inhabitants; soil survivors; debris-seed-borne; air-borne; seed-borne, and vector-borne pathogens. We applied these groups to characterize pathogens of two major crops, wheat and tomato, grown in temperate climate regions. Our contribution intends to provide a comprehensive conceptual framework for the design of crop disease management strategies based on ecological principles, as well as to facilitate the interpretation of the occurrence of epidemics in response to the agricultural practices applied in real-world agroecosystems.
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This article is part of the Doctoral Thesis of D. Vega, developed at the Doctoral Program in Agroecology, University of Antioquia (Medellin, Colombia), which is held in association with the Sociedad Científica Latinoamericana de Agroecología (SOCLA). S. L. Poggio is member of CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas), the National Scientific and Technical Research Council of Argentina.
This article has been supported by grants from UBACyT (20020130100501BA, 2014–2017).
Conflict of interest
Damián Vega declares that he has no conflict of interest. Marcela E. Gally declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ana María Romero declares that she has no conflict of interest. Santiago L. Poggio declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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Vega, D., Gally, M.E., Romero, A.M. et al. Functional groups of plant pathogens in agroecosystems: a review. Eur J Plant Pathol 153, 695–713 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-018-01616-8
- Crop diseases
- Cropping systems design
- Ecological disease management