Properties of vanillyl nonanoate for protection of pepper plants against Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea
- 45 Downloads
The properties of a capsinoid, vanillyl nonanoate (VNT), to control P. capsici and B. cinerea were studied both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro tests showed that VNT inhibits the germination of P. capsici spores, but not of B. cinerea spores. The antifungal effect was caused by the whole molecule, but not by the precursor molecules corresponding to the aromatic ring and the linear chain. In vivo assays, where plants were sprayed with VNT, then inoculated, showed that the compound protected the plant from the diseases caused by P. capsici and B. cinerea. VNT induced an enhanced expression of several pepper genes related to plant defence, namely CaBGLU1, CaSC1 and CaPAL1. Because VNT had no direct toxic effect against B. cinerea, and it induced pepper defence genes, the observed protection should be due to induced resistance.
KeywordsCapsinoids Capsicum annuum Fungicide Induced resistance
J.V. is in receipt of a Posdoctoral Contract from Xunta de Galicia.
Compliance with ethical standards
The manuscript complies with the Ethical Rules applicable for this journal.
Conflict of interest
José Díaz has received a research grant from Xunta de Galicia (Grant 10MRU103009PR). Javier Veloso is in receipt of a Posdoctoral Contract from Xunta de Galicia.
- Arora, R., Gill, N. S., Chauhan, G., & Rana, A. C. (2011). An overview about versatile molecule capsaicin. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 3, 280–286.Google Scholar
- Back, K., He, S., Kim, K. U., & Shin, D. H. (1998). Cloning and bacterial expression of sesquiterpene cyclase, a key branch point enzyme for the synthesis of sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin capsidiol in UV challenged leaves of Capsicum annuum. Plant and Cell Physiology, 39, 899–904.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Conover, W. J. (1980). Practical nonparametric statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- Elad, Y. (2016). Cultural and integrated control of Botrytis spp. In Botrytis–the Fungus, the Pathogen and its Management in Agricultural Systems (pp. 149–164). Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
- Görlach, J., Volrath, S., Knauf-Beiter, G., Hengy, G., Beckhove, U., Kogel, K.-H., et al. (1996). Benzothiadiazole, a novel class of inducers of systemic acquired resistance, activates gene expression and disease resistance in wheat. The Plant Cell, 8, 629–643.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hoagland, D. R. & Arnon, D. I. (1950). The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 347.Google Scholar
- Reddy, K. K. (2013). Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of novel phenolic lipids and their evaluation for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. (Doctoral dissertation, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad).Google Scholar
- Song, G. C., Ryu, S. Y., Kim, Y. S., Lee, J. Y., Choi, J. S., & Ryu, C.-M. (2013). Elicitation of induced resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae by specific individual compounds derived from native Korean plant species. Molecules, 18, 12877–12895.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tanaka, K., Ishihara, A., & Nakajima, H. (2014). Isolation of anteiso-C17, iso-C17, iso-C16, and iso-C15 Bacillomycin D from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 and their antifungal activities against plant pathogens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, 1469–1476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar