Occurrence of Puccinia spp. spores in Madeira Island and their phytopathological importance
- 234 Downloads
The genus Puccinia represents rust infections, which are responsible for great productivity losses in crops of commercial and ornamental plants worldwide. This work is aimed at determining the occurrence of Puccinia spp. spores in Madeira Island in order to infer the exposure risks from a phytopathological point of view. A phytopathological analysis was performed in 203 local plant samples between January 2003 and December 2012. During the same period the airborne concentrations of rust spores were monitored following well-established guidelines. Aerobiological data was compared with meteorological records. Based on macro and microscopic analyses, five species of rusts were identified: P. horiana, P. buxi, P. porri, P. pelargonii-zonalis, and P. sorghi, and they were found mostly in spring and summer. A total of 20 samples out of 203 analysed plants (9.8%), were infected with Puccinia spores, i.e., P. horiana (5.9%), P. buxi (1.47%), P. porri and P. pelargonii-zonalis (0.98%), and P. sorghi (0.5%). During the studied period Puccinia spores attained an annual average concentration of 126 spores m−3 and most of them were recorded between March and October. Meteorological factors were determinant in fluctuations in spore concentration. Relative humidity was the parameter that favoured the biggest release and dispersal of the rust spores, whereas rainfall revealed a significant negative effect. Rusts do not represent an important plant pathogen in Madeira Island, as shown by the low infection frequencies and levels of airborne spore concentrations.
KeywordsRust Inoculum detection Infection conditions Aerobiology Portugal
The authors are grateful to the Portuguese Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (SPAIC) for the help and support in the aerobiological study and the Institute of Ocean and Atmosphere (IPMA) - Regional Station in Funchal for providing the meteorological data. Special thanks go to the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, USA, for providing selected images of rust species.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Agrios, G. N. (1997). Plant pathology. San Diego: Academic press.Google Scholar
- Babadoost, M. (1991). Common rust and southern rust of sweet corn. Report on plant disease. University of Illinois Extension, RPD, (Serial No. 965).Google Scholar
- Borges, P. A. V., Abreu, C., Aguiar, A. M. F., Carvalho, P., Jardim, R., Melo, I., et al. (2008). A list of the terrestrial fungi, flora and fauna of Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos. Direcção Regional do Ambiente da Madeira and Universidade dos Açores, Funchal and Angra do Heroísmo.Google Scholar
- Calheta (Madeira) (2017). https://www.infopedia.pt/$calheta-(madeira). Accessed 5 Jan 2017.
- D’Amato, G., & Spieksma, F. Th. M. (1995). Aerobiologic and clinical aspects of mould allergy in Europe. European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Position Paper. Allergy, 50, 870–877.Google Scholar
- De Wolf, E., Murray, T., Paul, P., Osborne, L., & Tenuta, A. (2011). Identification and Management of Stem Rust on Wheat and Barley. USDA-CREES Extension IPM 2009-41533-05331. http://plantpath.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Stem-Rust-Man-WA1.pdf. Accessed 15 Nov 2016.
- Dennis, R. W. G. (1986). Fungi of the Hebrides. Kew: Royal Botanic Garden.Google Scholar
- EPPO/CABI. (1997). Puccinia horiana. In I. M. Smith, D. G. McNamara, P. R. Scott, & M. Holderness (Eds.), Quarantine pests for Europe. Wallingford: CABI.Google Scholar
- Farr, D. F., Bills, G. F., Chamuris, G. P., & Rossman, A. Y. (1989). Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. St. Paul: American Phytopathological Society Press.Google Scholar
- Galán, C., Cariñanos, P., Alcázar, P., & Dominguez-Vilches, E. (2007). Spanish aerobiology network (REA) management and quality manual. Córdoba: Servicio de Publicaciones Universidad de Córdoba, Argos Impresores SL.Google Scholar
- Ghatge, M. M., Salunkhe, V. S., & Jadhav, R. R. (2013). Diversity of airborne fungi in Kadegaon Tahsil, district Sangli, MS, India. International Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2, 26–29.Google Scholar
- Gjaerum, H. B. (1982). Rust fungi from Madeira. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal, 34, 1–22.Google Scholar
- Göre, M. E. (2008). Geranium rust disease caused by Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis: First report in Turkey. Plant Pathology, 57, 786.Google Scholar
- Gregorio-Cipriano, M. R., Fernández-Pavía, S. P., Rodríguez-Alvarado, G., & Gómez-Dorantes, N. (2013). First report of geranium rust (Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis) in the state of Michoacán, México. Plant Disease, 97(12), 1660 http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-05-13-0570-PDN. Accessed 14 Nov 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hiratsuka, Y., & Sato, S. (1982). Morphology and taxonomy of rust fungi. In K. Scott & A. K. Chakravorty (Eds.), The rust fungi (pp. 1–36). New York: Academic press.Google Scholar
- Holl, F. (1830). Verzeichniss der auf der Insel Madeira beobachteten Pflazen, nebst Beschreibung einiger neuen Arten. Flora, 13, 369–392.Google Scholar
- Huerta-Espino, J., Singh, R. P., & Roelfs, A. P. (2014). Rust fungi of wheat. In J. K. Misra, J. P. Tewari, S. K. Deshmukh, & C. Vágvölgyi (Eds.), Fungi from different substrates (pp. 217–259). Boca Raton: CRC press.Google Scholar
- Isard, S. A., & Russo, J. M. (2011). Risk assessment of aerial transport of rust pathogens to the western hemisphere and within North America. In McIntosh, R. (Ed.) Proc BGRI 2011Technical Workshop (pp. 25–34). St. Paul. http://www.globalrust.org/sites/default/files/2011%20BGRI%20plenary%20presentations-ALL.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2017.
- Jędryczka, M., Brachaczek, A., Kaczmarek, J., Dawidziuk, A., Kasprzyk, J., Mączyńska, A., et al. (2012). System for forecasting disease epidemics (SPEC) – Decision support system in polish agriculture, based on aerobiology. Alergologia Immunologia, 9, 89–91.Google Scholar
- Kadam, R. M., Reddy, N. J. M., & Biradar, R. P. (2010). Air-borne spore population of Puccinia penniseti in relation to rust disease of bajra at Ahmedpur. International Journal of Plant Protection, 3, 160–162.Google Scholar
- Kolmer, J. A. (2001). Early research on the genetics of Puccinia Graminis and stem rust resistance in wheat in Canada and the United States. In P. D. Peterson (Ed.), Stem rust of wheat: From ancient enemy to modern foe (pp. 51–82). St Paul: APS press.Google Scholar
- Magyar, D., & Manninger, K. (2004). Effects of meteorological conditions on uredo- and teliospores of rusts. In Proceedings of the International Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Conference. Norwich: John Innes Centre, 22-27 August 2004.Google Scholar
- Marasas, C. N., Smale, M., & Singh, R. P. (2004). The economic impact in developing countries of leaf rust resistance breeding in CIMMYT-related spring bread wheat. Economics program paper 04–01. Mexico: D. F, CIMMYT.Google Scholar
- Morris, C. E., Sands, D. C., Glaux, C., Samsatly, J., Asaad, S., Moukahel, A. R., et al. (2013). Urediospores of rust fungi are ice nucleation active at >−10 °C and harbor ice nucleation active bacteria. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 4223–4233.Google Scholar
- Peixoto-Junior, R. F., Creste, S., Landell, M. G. A., Nunes, D. S., Sanguino, A., Campos, M. F., et al. (2014). Genetic diversity among Puccinia Melanocephala isolates from Brazil assessed using simple sequence repeat markers. Genetics and Molecular Research, 13, 7852–7863.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quintal, R. (2007). Quintas, Parques e Jardins do Funchal - Estudo fitogeográfico. Lisboa: Esfera do Caos Editores.Google Scholar
- RHS. (2016). Box problems, Diseases of box. https://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profile?PID=851. Accessed 2 Nov 2016.
- Rivas-Martínez, S. (2001). Bioclimatic map of Europe – Thermotypes. Léon: University of Léon, Cartographic Service.Google Scholar
- Sadyś, M., Adams-Groom, B., Herbert, R. J., & Kennedy, R. (2016). Comparisons of fungal spore distributions using air sampling at Worcester, England (2006–2010). Aerobiologia. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10453-016-9436-4.
- Trejo, F. H., Rodríguez, A. F. M., Molina, F. T., & Palacios, I. S. (2013). Airborne spores of basidiomycetes in Mérida (SW Spain). Annals of Agriculture Environment Medicine, 20, 657–663.Google Scholar
- Vodonos, A., Friger, M., Katra, I., Avnon, L., Krasnov, H., Koutrakis, P., et al. (2014). The impact of desert dust exposures on hospitalizations due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-014-0253-z.
- Zadoks, J. C. (1967). International dispersal of fungi. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, Supp. 1, 61–80.Google Scholar
- Zanatta, P. (2013). Controle preventivo de doenças foliares em híbridos comerciais de milho com fungicidas em espaçamento reduzido. Master's thesis, Brazil: Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Unicentro.Google Scholar