An extensive survey was carried out to collect Fusarium species colonizing the lower stems (crowns) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) from different wheat growing regions of Turkey in summer 2013. Samples were collected from 200 fields representing the major wheat cultivation areas in Turkey, and fungi were isolated from symptomatic crowns. The isolates were identified to species level by sequencing the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-α) gene region using primers ef1 and ef2. A total of 339 isolates representing 17 Fusarium species were isolated. The isolates were identified as F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. acuminatum, F. brachygibbosum, F. hostae, F. redolens, F. avenaceum, F. oxysporum, F. torulosum, F. proliferatum, F. flocciferum, F. solani, F. incarnatum, F. tricinctum and F. reticulatum. Fusarium equiseti was the most commonly isolated species, accounting for 36% of the total Fusarium species isolated. Among the damaging species, F. culmorum was the predominant species being isolated from 13.6% of sites surveyed while F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum were isolated only from 1% and 0.5% of surveyed sites, respectively. Six out of the 17 Fusarium species tested for pathogenicity caused crown rot with different levels of severity. Fusarium culmorum, F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum caused severe crown rot disease on durum wheat. Fusarium avenaceum and F. hostae were weakly to moderately virulent. Fusarium redolens was weakly virulent. However, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. solani, F. incarnatum, F. reticulatum, F. flocciferum, F. tricinctum, F. brachygibbosum, F. torulosum, F. acuminatum and F. proliferatum were non-pathogenic. The result of this study reveal the existence of a wide range of Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat in Turkey.
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The research was financially supported by Borlaug LEAP. CIMMYT, Washington State University and Ankara University provided technical assistance. Most of the research was conducted at the Transitional Zone Agriculture Research Institute – Eskişehir, Turkey. All assistance is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Pat Okubara for assistance in annotating the sequences.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Shikur Gebremariam, E., Sharma-Poudyal, D., Paulitz, T.C. et al. Identity and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with crown rot on wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey. Eur J Plant Pathol 150, 387–399 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-017-1285-7
- Crown rot
- Translation elongation factor
- Bread wheat
- Triticum aestivum
- Durum wheat
- Triticum durum