European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 148, Issue 3, pp 749–754 | Cite as

Fusarium verticillioides inoculum potential influences soybean seed quality

  • Rodrigo Pedrozo
  • Christopher R. LittleEmail author


F. verticillioides (FVE) is an important Fusarium species that has been recovered from soybean seeds. In other crops, such as maize, it has the potential to decrease seed germination and vigor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed inoculum potential (amount of inoculum present in seeds) of FVE on soybean seed quality, as measured by germination of artificially inoculated seeds. Seeds were inoculated with 2.5 × 106 FVE conidia/ml for one minute as the low inoculum potential seed treatment. For the high inoculum potential seed treatment, inoculated seeds were inoculated with the same conidia suspension, but osmoconditioned on potato dextrose agar +8% mannitol for 48 h. Two soybean genotypes, ‘AG3039’ and ‘KSU3406’ were tested. Analysis of seeds inoculated with the low inoculum potential treatment showed that none of the FVE isolates tested and only the positive controls were able to significantly reduce soybean seed germination (P < 0.001) when compared with the mock-inoculated control for both genotypes tested. Under the high inoculum potential treatment, all three FVE isolates were able to decrease seed germination when compared with the mock-inoculated control treatment for both genotypes. This study suggests that F. verticillioides has the potential to reduce soybean seed quality, depending on the amount of inoculum present in seeds (inoculum potential), which affects pathogenicity and negatively influences soybean seed germination as well as the establishment of a uniform and healthy stand in the field.


Seedborne fungi Fusarium verticillioides Soybean seed quality Inoculum potential 



This publication is Contribution No. 17-127-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan. Funding for this project was provided in part by the United Soybean Board (Project 1520-532-5667).

Supplementary material

10658_2016_1127_Fig4_ESM.gif (273 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1

Soybean seed inoculation methods. (a) Low inoculum potential treatment: Soybean seeds were imbibed in 25 ml of Fusarium inoculum suspension (2.5 × 105 conidia ml−1) for 1 min (a.1); Seeds were placed on germination paper after inoculation (a.2); After 7 days of incubation at 25 °C and 88% R.H., germination (%), and DSI were calculated based on symptoms observed (a.3). High inoculum potential treatment: Soybean seeds imbibed in 25 ml of Fusarium inoculum suspension for 1 min (b.1); Inoculated seeds were placed on PDA, osmotically modified with mannitol (PDA + M) for 48 h (b.2); After incubation of the seeds for 48 h at 25 °C, artificially inoculated seeds were dried for 2 days at room temperature (b.3); One hundred inoculated seeds were placed on germination paper after the inoculation procedure (b.4); After 7 days of incubation at 25 °C and 88% R.H., germination (%), and DSI were calculated (b.5). (GIF 273 kb)

10658_2016_1127_MOESM1_ESM.tif (19.6 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 20057 kb)


  1. Agarwal, V. K., & Sinclair, J. B. (1996). Principles of seed pathology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  2. Arias, M. D., Munkvold, G., & Leandro, L. (2011). First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing root rot on soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Plant Disease, 95, 1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barros, G. G., Zanon, M. S. A., Chiotta, M. L., Reynoso, M. M., Scandiani, M. M., & Chulze, S. N. (2014). Pathogenicity of phylogenetic species in the Fusarium graminearum complex on soybean seedlings in Argentina. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 138, 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Broders, K., Lipps, P., Paul, P., & Dorrance, A. (2007). Evaluation of Fusarium graminearum associated with corn and soybean seed and seedling disease in Ohio. Plant Disease, 91, 1155–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ellis, M., Broders, K., Paul, P., & Dorrance, A. (2011). Infection of soybean seed by Fusarium graminearum and effect of seed treatments on disease under controlled conditions. Plant Disease, 95, 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Garcia, D., Barros, G., Chulze, S., Ramos, A. J., Sanchis, V., & Marín, S. (2012). Impact of cycling temperatures on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxins production in soybean. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 2952–2959.Google Scholar
  7. Ivić, D., Domijan, A. M., Peraica, M., Miličević, T., & Cvjetković, B. (2009). Fusarium spp. contamination of wheat, maize, soybean, and pea grain in Croatia. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 60, 435–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Leslie, J. F., & Summerell, B. A. (2006). The Fusarium laboratory manual. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Machado, J. D. C., Machado, A. Q., Pozza, E. A., Machado, C. F., & Zancan, W. L. A. (2013). Inoculum potential of Fusarium verticillioides and performance of maize seeds. Tropical Plant Pathology, 38, 213–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Machado, J. C., Guimaraes, R. M., Vieira, M. G. G. C., Souza, R. M., & Pozza, E. A. (2004). Use of water restriction technique in seed pathology. Seed Testing International, Switzerland, 128, 14–18.Google Scholar
  11. Munkvold, G. P., McGee, D. C., & Carlton, W. M. (1997). Importance of different pathways for maize kernel infection by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology, 87, 209–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Neergaard, P. (1979). Seed pathology. 2 Vols. London: MacMillan Press, Ltd.Google Scholar
  13. Oren, L., Ezrati, S., Cohen, D., & Sharon, A. (2003). Early events in the Fusarium verticillioides-maize interaction characterized by using a green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic isolate. Applied and Environment Microbiology, 69, 1695–1701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pedrozo, R., & Little, C. (2014). First report of seedborne Fusarium thapsinum and its pathogenicity on soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Plant Disease, 98, 1745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pedrozo, R., & Little, C. (2015). The interesting case of soybean seedborne Fusarium spp.: from identity to pathogenicity. Phytopathology, 105, S4.109.Google Scholar
  16. Roy, K., Baird, R., & Abney, T. (2001). A review of soybean (Glycine max) seed, pod, and flower mycofloras in North America, with methods and a key for identification of selected fungi. Mycopathologia, 150, 15–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Zelaya, M. J., González, H. H. L., Resnik, S. L., Pacin, A. M., Salas, M. P., & Martínez, M. J. (2013). Mycobiota and potential mycotoxin contamination of soybean RR in different production areas in Argentina. International Research Journal of Plant Science, 4, 133–143.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

Personalised recommendations