Advertisement

European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 147, Issue 1, pp 15–20 | Cite as

Search for reservoirs of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ and mollicutes in weeds associated with carrot and celery crops

  • Ana Alfaro-Fernández
  • Mercedes Verdeguer
  • Francisco Rodríguez-León
  • Isabel Ibáñez
  • Desamparados Hernández
  • Gabriela R. Teresani
  • Edson Bertolini
  • Mariano Cambra
  • María Isabel Font
Article

Abstract

Currently, the main arthropod vectored pathogens associated with carrot and celery crop diseases are ˋCandidatus Liberibacter solanacearum´, Spiroplasma citri and different phytoplasma species. Mitigation strategies require elucidating whether these pathogens survive in the weeds of these Apiaceae crops, which can act as reservoirs. Weed surveys were conducted in a vegetative cycle (April to October 2012) in the spontaneous vegetation that surrounded crops affected by ˋCa. L. solanacearum´, S. citri and/or phytoplasmas. Sixty-three species of 53 genera that belong to 23 botanical families were collected in the main carrot and celery Spanish production area. Species were identified, estimating coverage and abundance, and conserved in herbarium. Samples were analysed by nested-PCR with universal primers for phytoplasmas detection, and were sequenced for identification purposes; by conventional PCR for S. citri and real-time PCR for ˋCa. L. solanacearum´. The only detected pathogens were ˋCa. Phytoplasma trifolii´ (clover proliferation group 16Sr VI-A) in Amaranthus blitoides and Setaria adhaerens and ˋCa. P. solani´ (stolbur group 16Sr XII-A) in Convolvulus arvensis. These pathogens were also sporadically detected in celery or carrot crops. Unexpectedly, neither ˋCa. L. solanacearum´ nor S. citri was detected in the weed samples, despite the relatively high prevalence of these pathogens (less than 66 % and 25 %, respectively) in the surveyed plots. This suggests that weeds do not play an epidemiological role as reservoirs in the spread of such organisms in the studied region. The use of pathogen-free seed lots and the control of vectors are crucial for preventing the introduction and spread of these economical important pathogens to new areas.

Keywords

Spontaneous vegetation Spiroplasma citri Phytoplasmas PCR Detection 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by grant INIA (RTA2011-00142). G.R. Teresani was the recipient of a PhD grant from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Ministério de Educação, Brazil. This paper is dedicated to the memory of F.J. Villaescusa (1981-2011). The technical support of S. Sanjuán and J.C. Ferrándiz from Agrícola Villena Coop. V. is acknowledged.

References

  1. Alfaro-Fernández, A., Cebrián, M. C., Villaescusa, F. J., Hermoso de Mendoza, A., Ferrándiz, J. C., Sanjuán, S., & Font, M. I. (2012). First report of ˋCandidatus Liberibacter solanacearum´ in carrots in mainland Spain. Plant Disease, 96, 582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertaccini, A., & Duduk, B. (2009). Phytoplasma and phytoplasma disease: a review of recent research. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 48, 355–378.Google Scholar
  3. Bertolini, E., Teresani, G. R., Loiseau, M., Tanaka, F. A. O., Barbé, S., Martínez, C., Gentit, P., López, M. M., & Cambrá, M. (2015). Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in carrot seeds. Plant Pathology, 64, 276–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bové, J. M. (1986). Stubborn and its natural transmission in the Mediterranean area and the near east. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 34, 15–23.Google Scholar
  5. Bové J. M., Fos A., Lallemand J., Raie A., Ali Y., Ahmed N. (1988). Epidemiology of Spiroplasma citri in the old world. In: L. W. Timmer, S.M. Garnsey, L. Navarro, eds. Proceedings of the 10th International Organization of Citrus Virologist Conference, (295–299). Riverside, USA. (www.iocv.org/proceedings).
  6. Braun-Blanquet, J. (1932). Plant sociology: the study of plant communities (439 pp). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  7. Carretero, J. L. (2004). Flora arvense española (754 pp). Valencia: Las malas hierbas de los cultivos españoles. Phytoma Ed.Google Scholar
  8. Cebrián, M. C., Villaescusa, F. J., Alfaro-Fernández, A., Hermoso De Mendoza, A., Córdoba- Sellés, M. C., Jordá, C., Ferrándiz, J. C., Sanjuán, S., & Font, M. I. (2010). First report of Spiroplasma citri in carrot in Europe. Plant Disease, 94, 1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis, R. M., & Raid, R. N. (2002). Compendium of Umbelliferous crop disease (110 pp).American Phytopathological SocietyGoogle Scholar
  10. Ember, I., Acs, Z., Munyaneza, J. E., Crosslin, J. M., & Kolber, M. (2011). Survey and molecular detection of phytoplasmas associated with potato in Romania and southern Rusia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 130, 367–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fialová, R., Valová, P., Balakishiyevá, G., Danet, J. L., Safarová, D., Foissac, X., & Navratil, M. (2009). Genetic variability of stolbur phytoplasma in anual crop and wild plant species in South Moravia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91, 411–416.Google Scholar
  12. Fujiwara, K. (1987). Aims and methods of phytosociology or "vegetation science", Papers on plant ecology and taxonomy to the memory of Dr. Satoshi Nakanishi. pp. 607–628.Google Scholar
  13. Green, M. J., Thompson, D. A., & MacKenzie, D. J. (1999). Easy and efficient DNA extraction from Woody plants for the detection of Phytoplasmas by polymerase chain reaction. Plant Disease, 83, 482–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gundersen, D. E., & Lee, I. M. (1996). Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested- PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 35, 144–151.Google Scholar
  15. Haapalanien, M. (2014). Biology and epidemics of Candidatus Liberibacter species, psyllid-transmitted plant-pathogenic bacteria. Annals of Applied Biology, 165, 172–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herbario de la Universidad Pública de Navarra. (2012). http://www.unavarra.es/herbario. Accessed 2012.
  17. Herbario Virtual del Mediterráneo Occidental. (2012). http://herbarivirtual.uib.es/. Accessed 2012.
  18. Flora Ibérica. (2012). http://www.floraiberica.org/. Accessed 2012.
  19. Jomantiene, R., Maas, J. L., Dally, E. L., Davis, R. E., & Postman, J. D. (1999). First report of clover proliferation Phytoplasma in strawberry. Plant Disease, 83, 967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jomantiene, R., Postman, J. D., Montano, H. G., Maas, J. L., Davis, R. E., & Johnson, K. B. (2000). First report of clover yellow edge Phytoplasma in Corylus (hazelnut). Plant Disease, 84, 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee, I. M., Gundersen-Rindal, D. E., Davis, R. E., & Bartoszyk, I. M. (1998). Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 48, 1153–1169.Google Scholar
  22. Lee, I. M., Dane, R. A., & Black, M. C. (2001). First report of a member of Aster yellows Phytoplasma group and of clover proliferation Phytoplasma group associated with onion in Texas. Plant Disease, 85, 448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee, I. M., Bottner, K. D., Miklas, P. N., & Pastor-Corrales, M. A. (2004). Clover proliferation group (16SrVI) subgroup a (16SrVI-A) Phytoplasma is a probable causal agent of dry bean Phyllody disease in Washington. Plant Disease, 88, 429–429.Google Scholar
  24. Mateo, G., & Crespo, M. (2009). Manual Para la determinación de la flora valenciana (4ª ed.507 pp). Alicante: Librería Compás.Ed.Google Scholar
  25. Murphy, A. F., Cating, R. A., Goyer, A., Hamm, P. B., & Rondon, S. I. (2014). First report of natural infection by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) in the Columbia Basin of eastern Oregon. Plant Disease, 94, 1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nejat, N., Vadamalai, G., & Dickinson, M. (2011). Spiroplasma citri: a wide host range phytopathogen. Plant Pathology Journal, 10, 46–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schneider, B., Seemüller, E., Smart, C. D., & Kirkpatrick, B. C. (1995). Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms or phytoplasmas. In S. Razin & J. G. Tully (Eds.), Molecular and diagnostic procedures in mycoplasmology (Vol. Vol.I, pp. 369–380). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Teresani, G., Bertolini, E., Alfaro-Fernandez, A., Martínez, C., Tanaka, F. A., Kitajima, E., Rosello, M., Sanjuan, S., Ferrandiz, J. C., López, M. M., Cambra, M., & Font-San-Ambrosio, M. I. (2014). Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ with a vegetative disorder of celery in Spain and development of a real-time PCR method for its detection. Phytopahology, 104, 804–811.Google Scholar
  29. Teresani, G., Hernández, E., Bertolini, E., Siverio, F., Marroquín, C., Molina, J., Hermoso de Mendoza, A., & Cambra, M. (2015). Search for potencial vectors of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’: population dynamics in host crops. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 13, e10–002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flora Vascular. (2012). http://www.floravascular.com/. Accessed 2012.
  31. Weed Science Society of America. (2012). http://wssa.net/weed/weed-identification/. Accessed 2012.
  32. Yokomi, R. K., Mello, A. F. S., Saponari, M., & Fletcher, J. (2008). Polymerase chain reactionbased detection of Spiroplasma citri associated with citrus stubborn disease. Plant Disease, 92, 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Alfaro-Fernández
    • 1
  • Mercedes Verdeguer
    • 1
  • Francisco Rodríguez-León
    • 1
  • Isabel Ibáñez
    • 1
  • Desamparados Hernández
    • 1
  • Gabriela R. Teresani
    • 2
    • 3
  • Edson Bertolini
    • 2
    • 4
  • Mariano Cambra
    • 2
  • María Isabel Font
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Agroforestal MediterráneoUniversidad Politécnica de Valencia (IAM-UPV)ValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA)Protección vegetal y BiotecnologíaMoncadaSpain
  3. 3.Fitossanidade, Instituto Agronômico de Campinas APTA-IACCampinasBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Fitossanidade. Faculdade de AgronomiaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations