Advertisement

European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 146, Issue 4, pp 847–860 | Cite as

Incidence and etiology of postharvest fungal diseases of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. cv. ‘Algerie’) in Alacant province (Spain)

  • Lluís PalouEmail author
  • Paloma Sánchez-Torres
  • Clara Montesinos-Herrero
  • Verònica Taberner
Article

Abstract

‘Algerie’ is currently the most important loquat cultivar in Spain. The incidence and etiology of postharvest diseases affecting this cultivar were determined under local conditions. Latent and wound pathogens were evaluated for two consecutive seasons on commercially grown loquats from two orchards. Healthy loquats were either surface-disinfected or artificially wounded in the rind and placed in humid chambers at 20 °C for up to 5 weeks. Additionally, decay was assessed on commercially-handled loquats stored at 5 °C for up to 20 weeks. The most frequent disease was caused by Alternaria alternata, followed by Penicillium expansum. These two pathogens were present on fruit assessed for all types of infection. Moreover, decay caused by Botrytis cinerea was abundantly observed on both wounded and cold-stored fruit, while Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was frequently found on surface-disinfected fruit. Other pathogens that were observed causing latent infection to a lesser extent included Pestalotiopsis clavispora and Diplodia seriata. Common isolates were identified by macroscopic and microscopic morphology and/or DNA amplification and sequencing. Pathogenicity of selected isolates was demonstrated by fulfilling Koch’s postulates and disease development was assessed on artificially inoculated loquats stored at either 20 or 5 °C.

Keywords

Eriobotrya japonica Postharvest diseases Latent infection Wound infection Cold storage Pathogenicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was partially funded by Spanish ‘Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación’ (MICINN; project AGL 2004-05271/AGR) and the European Union (FEDER Program). The authors thank Mr. Esteve Soler and the Cooperativa Agrícola de Callosa d’en Sarrià S. Coop. V. for providing fruit. In memory of Dr. Miguel Angel del Río, for his guidance and friendship.

References

  1. Batta, Y. (2005). Control of Alternaria spot disease on loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) using detached fruits and leaf-disk assay. An-Najah University Journal for Research - Natural Sciences, 19, 69–82.Google Scholar
  2. Butt, H., Mukhtar, T., Batool, M., Aslam, M. N., Kayani, M. Z., & Hussain, M. A. (2015). Occurrence of leaf scab caused by Spilocaea pyracanthae on loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) in the Pothowar region of Pakistan. Mycopathologia, 13, 29–32.Google Scholar
  3. Cao, S. F., & Zheng, Y. H. (2010). Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum and disease resistance in loquat fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 2289–2294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao, S. F., Cai, Y., Yang, Z. F., Joyce, C. D., & Zheng, Y. (2014). Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit. Food Chemistry, 145, 86–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao, S. F., Zheng, Y. H., Yang, Z. F., Tang, S. S., Jin, P., Wang, K. T., et al. (2008). Effect of methyl jasmonate on the inhibition of Colletotrichum acutatum infection in loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 49, 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai, C., Xu, C., Shan, L., Li, X., Zhou, C., Zhang, W., et al. (2006). Low temperature conditioning reduces postharvest chilling injury in loquat fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41, 252–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deng, C. J., Jiang, J. M., Zhang, X. Y., Xu, Q. Z., Zhang, X. J., & Wei, X. Q. (2012). Research on influence factors in heat injury of loquat peel. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 27, 1081–1086.Google Scholar
  8. Ding, C. K., Chachin, K., Hamauzu, Y., Ueda, Y., & Imahori, Y. (1998). Effects of storage temperatures on physiology and quality of loquat fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 14, 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding, C. K., Chachin, K., Ueda, Y., Imahori, Y., & Wang, C. Y. (2002). Modified atmosphere packaging maintains postharvest quality of loquat fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 24, 341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ding, Z., Tian, S., Wang, Y., Li, B., Chan, Z., Han, L., et al. (2006). Physiological response of loquat fruit to different storage conditions and its storability. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41, 143–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Droby, S., Wisniewski, M., & Benkeblia, N. (2011). Postharvest pathology of tropical and subtropical fruit and strategies for decay control. In E. M. Yahia (Ed.), Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits (Vol. 1, pp. 194–223). Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghasemnezhad, M., Nezhad, M. A., & Gerailoo, G. (2011). Changes in postharvest quality of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits influenced by chitosan. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 52, 40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gu, H., Liu, A. Y., Chen, W. X., Feng, S. J., & Shi, J. Y. (2007). Development and control of postharvest diseases of loquat fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 750, 437–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones, A. L., & Aldwinckle, H. S. (1990). Compendium of apple and pear diseases. St. Paul, MN, USA: The American Phytopathological Society Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ko, Y., Liu, C. W., Chen, C. C., Yao, K. S., Maruthasalam, S., & Lin, C. H. (2010). First report of fruit rot of loquat caused by an Alternaria sp. in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 94, 481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kobiler, I., Akerman, M., Huberman, L., & Prusky, D. (2011). Integration of pre- and postharvest treatments for the control of black spot caused by Alternaria alternata in stored persimmon fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 59, 166–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu, A. Y., Chen, W. X., Gu, H., Shi, J. Y., & Li, J. (2007). Biological characteristic of pathogenic fungus causing anthracnose of loquat fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 750, 465–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu, F., Tu, K., Shao, X., Zhao, Y., Tu, S., Su, J., et al. (2010). Effect of hot air treatment in combination with Pichia guilliermondii on postharvest anthracnose rot of loquat fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 58, 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lu, Z. M., Zhang, Z. L., Wu, W. X., & Li, W. H. (2007). Effect of low temperatures on postharvest loquat fruit. Acta Horticulturae, 750, 483–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. MAGRAMA (2015). Anuario de Estadística 2014. Resource document Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente (in Spanish). http://www.magrama.gob.es/estadistica/pags/anuario/2014/AE_2014_Completo.pdf. Accessed 12 January 2016.
  21. Mirhosseini, H. A., Babaeizad, V., & Basavand, E. (2015). Identification and detection of agent of loquat leaf spot and fruit rot in north of Iran. Journal on New Biological Reports, 4, 135–138.Google Scholar
  22. Molinu, M. G., D’Hallewin, G., Dore, A., Serusi, A., Venditti, T., & Agabbio, M. (2005). Carbonic acid salts at 25 or 45 °C to control loquat decay under shelf life conditions. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 70, 365–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Palou, L., Montesinos-Herrero, C., Tarazona, I., Besada, C., & Taberner, V. (2015). Incidence and etiology of postharvest fungal diseases of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante) in Spain. Plant Disease, 99, 1416–1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Palou, L., Montesinos-Herreros, C., Guardado, A., & Taberner, V. (2013a). First report of Pestalotiopsis clavispora causing postharvest fruit rot of loquat in Spain. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95, S4.69.Google Scholar
  25. Palou, L., Taberner, V., & Montesinos-Herreros, C. (2013b). First report of Diplodia seriata causing loquat fruit rot in Spain. Plant Disease, 97, 421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Palou, L., Taberner, V., Guardado, A., del Río, M. A., & Montesinos-Herreros, C. (2013c). Incidence and etiology of postharvest fungal diseases of pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Mollar de Elche) in Spain. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 52, 478–489.Google Scholar
  27. Pareek, S., Benkeblia, N., Janick, J., Cao, S., & Yahia, E. M. (2014). Postharvest physiology and technology of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 1495–1504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ploetz, R. C. (2003). Diseases of tropical fruit crops. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rotem, J. (1998). The genus Alternaria. Biology, epidemiology and pathogenicity (2nd ed.). St. Paul, MN, USA: The American Phytopathological Society Press.Google Scholar
  30. Sánchez-Torres, P., Hinarejos, R., & Tuset, J. J. (2007). Identification and characterization of Fusicladium eriobotryae: fungal pathogen causing Mediterranean loquat scab. Acta Horticulturae, 750, 343–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sánchez-Torres, P., Hinarejos, R., & Tuset, J. J. (2009). Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusicladium eriobotryae, the fungal pathogen responsible for loquat scab. Plant Disease, 93, 1151–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Soler, E., Martínez-Calvo, J., Llácer, G., & Badenes, M. L. (2007). Loquat in Spain: production and marketing. Acta Horticulturae, 750, 45–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sultan, M. Z., Khalefa, S. M., Elhamamsy, S. M., & Mostafa, Y. S. (2015). Effect of postharvest anti-oxidant treatments on loquat fruit deterioration during storage at room temperature. Acta Horticulturae, 1092, 173–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sun, H., Zhang, L. L., Zhang, J. Z., & Hu, D. W. (2009). Identificacion of causal agent of blosson blight of loquat in Zhejiang province, China. Journal of Zhejiang University - Agricultural and Life Sciences, 35, 237–242.Google Scholar
  35. Tian, S., Li, B., & Ding, Z. (2007). Physiological properties and storage technologies of loquat fruit. Fresh Produce, 1, 76–81.Google Scholar
  36. Tian, S., Quin, G., & Li, B. (2011). Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica L). In E. M. Yahia (Ed.), Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits (Vol. 3, pp. pp. 424–442). Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  37. Tziros, G. T. (2013). Alternaria alternata causes leaf spot and fruit rot on loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) in Greece. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 8, 123–124.Google Scholar
  38. Wang, K., Cao, S., Di, Y., Liao, Y., & Zheng, Y. (2015). Effect of ethanol treatment on disease resistance against anthracnose rot in postharvest loquat fruit. Scientia Horticulturae, 188, 115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S., & Taylor, J. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky, & T. J. White (Eds.), PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications (pp. 315–322). San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press Inc..Google Scholar
  40. Williamson, B., Tudzynski, B., Tudzynski, P., & van Kan, J. A. L. (2007). Botrytis cinerea the cause of grey mould disease. Molecular Plant Pathology, 8, 561–580.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Yan, R., Ding, D., Guan, W., Hou, J., & Li, M. (2008). Control of grey mould rot of loquat with chitinase expressed in Pichia pastoris. Crop Protection, 27, 1312–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lluís Palou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paloma Sánchez-Torres
    • 1
  • Clara Montesinos-Herrero
    • 1
  • Verònica Taberner
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratori de Patologia, Centre de Tecnologia Postcollita (CTP)Institut Valencià d’Investigacions Agràries (IVIA)ValènciaSpain

Personalised recommendations