Vmp1 and stamp genes variability of ‘Candidatus phytoplasma solani’ in Bosnian and Herzegovinian grapevine
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Bois noir is one of the most important diseases caused by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ affecting grapevine in the Euro-Mediterranean area. ‘Ca. P. solani’ characterization plays a significant role in its diagnosis, control and understanding of its epidemiology. In the present study, two genes encoding membrane proteins, namely vmp1 and stamp, were used to assess the genetic variability of 18 ‘Ca. P. solani’ grapevine isolates from the Herzegovina region (B&H), previously characterised as tuf-b type. Nested-PCR/RFLP and sequence analyses of vmp1 gene showed the presence of three profiles V17, V14 and V4 where V17 was highly prevalent. Phylogenetic analysis of stamp gene revealed the presence of four different genotypes, where Rqg50 was the most frequent. Finally, the combined results of tuf, vmp1 and stamp genes, reported three previously identified genotypes from Serbia, Austria and Montenegro, and two newly described ones (DB1 and DB2). Although performed only on ‘Ca. P. solani’ isolates from infected grapevines, this study provides useful molecular information to get better insight on BN epidemiology in B&H.
KeywordsBois noir disease Genetic variability Membrane protein Nested PCR RFLP Sequencing Phylogeny
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Polymerase chain reaction
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms
This work was supported by the B&H Ministry of Civil Affairs (project number 10-35-5-673/13-16). We are very thankful to Xavier Foissac for helpful suggestion in determination of vmp1 restriction types. Special thanks also the anonymous reviewers for the helpful comments with which we clarified and upgraded this paper.
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