European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 143, Issue 4, pp 677–689 | Cite as

Screening faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes for resistance to Stemphylium blight in Iran

  • F. Sheikh
  • H. DehghaniEmail author
  • M. A. Aghajani


Improving yield, diseases resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits are the most important aims of faba bean breeding. Stemphylium blight, a fungal disease caused by Stemphylium botryosum and S. vesicarium, causes great devastation in faba bean production in Golestan province. The levels of resistance to Stemphylium blight disease were evaluated in 99 faba bean genotypes. The experiment was conducted during the 2011–2012 cropping season in Gorgan, Iran. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatment variables studied were disease severity, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), plant height, yield component and grain yield. Plants which scored for resistance on a 1 to 9 severity scale. The results revealed significant differences between genotypes for all studied traits. There was significant variability for resistance to Stemphylium blight disease among faba bean cultivars. According to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the first two components explained about 98 % of genetic variation. The PC1 indicated that grain yield and biological yield per plant were important traits for classification. While AUDPC was important in PC2. Based on Cluster analysis, 99 genotypes were divided into three clusters. Cluster II showed maximum grain yield per plant and biological yield harvest index. Diversity in the resistance of faba beans to Stemphylium blight determines their potential for improved efficiency in order providing diseases management in this crop, and crossing nurseries for faba bean improvement.


Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) Cluster analysis Principal component analysis (PCA) Vicia faba L. 



This study was funded by the seed and plant improvement institute (SPII) and faculty of Agriculture of Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. The authors are also thankful to Mahyar Abedi, Head of Vegetable and Irrigated Pulses Research Department (SPII), for providing the faba bean seed.


  1. Abdel-Hafez, S. I. I. (1984). Mycoflora of bean, broad bean, lentil, lupine and pea seeds in Saudi Arabia. Mycopatbologia, 88, 45–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agegnehu, G., Ghizaw, A., & Sinebo, W. (2006). Yield performance and land-use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlands. European Journal of Agronomy, 25, 202–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aghajani, M. A. (2009). Stemphylium leaf blight of broad bean in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(4, Supplement), S4.97–S4.112.Google Scholar
  4. Aghajani, M., Razinataj, A., & Mohammadi, H. (2009). Identification and management guide for broad bean diseases. Rashad Publishers. 87 p. (In Persian).Google Scholar
  5. Agrios, G. N. (2005). Plant pathology (5th ed.). Boston: Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Basallote-Ureba, M. J., Prados-Ligero, A. M., & Melero-Vara, J. M. (1998). Effectiveness of tebuconazole and procymidone in the control of Stemphylium leaf spots in garlic. Crop Protection, 17, 491–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouhassan, A., Sadiki, M., & Tivoli, B. (2004). Evaluation of a collection of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes originating from the Maghreb for resistance to chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) by assessment in the field and laboratory. Euphytica, 135, 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, J. K. M. (2006). Surveys of variation in virulence and fungicide resistance and their application to disease control. In B. M. Cooke, D. G. Jones, & B. Kaye (Eds.), The epidemiology of plant disease (pp. 81–113). Netherland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell, C. L., & Madden, L. V. (1990). Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. New York: John Willey and Sons. 532 p.Google Scholar
  10. Chaieb, N., Bouslama, M., & Mars, M. (2011). Growth and yield parameters variability among faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes. Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources, 1, 81–90.Google Scholar
  11. Chaubey, B. K., Yadav, C. B., Mishra, V. K., & Kumar, K. (2012). Genetic divergence analysis in faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Trends in Biosciences, 5, 64–67.Google Scholar
  12. Egan, J., McMurray, L., Paull, J., Davidson, J., & Crouch, J. (2006). Reducing management inputs and maximising seed quality in faba bean through improved varieties. In N. C. Turner, T. Acuna, & R. C. Johnson (Eds.), Ground-breaking stuff. Proceedings of the 13th Australian Agronomy Conference (pp. 6). Perth: Western Australia.Google Scholar
  13. ICARDA. (1986). Annual report: Food legume improvement program.Google Scholar
  14. Kumar, P. (2007). Genetics of resistance to Stemphylium leaf blight of lentil (Lens culinaris) in the Barimasur-4 × CDC Milestone. M.S. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan.Google Scholar
  15. Liu, Y. J., & Zong, X. X. (2008). Morphological diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia Faba L.) germplasm resources from Qinghai. Journal Plant Genetic Resources, 8, 153–158.Google Scholar
  16. Menzies, S. A., Broadhurst, P. G., & Triggs, C. M. (1992). Stemphylium disease of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop Horticultural Science, 20, 427–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Meyer, M. P., Hausbeck, M. K., & Podolsky, R. (2000). Optimal fungicide management of purple spot of asparagus and impact on yield. Plant Disease, 84, 525–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Montesinos, E., Moragrega, C., Llorenta, P., Vilardell, P., Bonaterra, A., Ponti, I., et al. (1995). Development and evaluation of an infection model for Stemphylium vesicarium on pear based on temperature and wetness duration. Ecology and Epidemiology, 85, 586–592.Google Scholar
  19. Mwakutuya, E. (2006). Epidemology of Stemphylium blight on Lenit (Lens culinaris) in Saskatchewan. M.S. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan.Google Scholar
  20. Orieux, L., & Felix, S. (1968). List of plant diseases in Mauritius. Phytopathological Papers, 7, 1–48.Google Scholar
  21. Ouji, A., Rouaissi, M., Abdellaoui, R., & Gazzah, M. E. (2011). The use of reproductive vigor descriptors in studying genetic variability in nine Tunisian faba bean (Vicia faba L.) populations. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 896–904.Google Scholar
  22. Pahlavani, M. H., Razavi, S. E., Mirizadeh, I., & Vakili, S. (2007). Field screening of safflower genotypes for resistance to charcoal rot disease. International Journal of Plant Production, 1, 45–52.Google Scholar
  23. Panireh, N., & Aghajani, M. A. (2015). Study of distribution and importance of faba bean diseases in the city of Gorgan. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, (in press). (in Persian).Google Scholar
  24. Polignano, G. B., Quintano, G., & Bisignano, V. (1998). Enzyme polymorphism in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor) accessions, genetic interpretation and value for classification. Euphytica, 102, 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rhaiemi, A., Cherif, M., Kharrat, M., Cherif, M., & Harrabi, M. (2002). New faba bean genotypes resistant to chocolate spot caused by Botrytis fabae. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 41, 99–108.Google Scholar
  26. Roman, B., Satovic, Z., Avila, C. M., Rubiales, D., Moreno, M. T., & Torres, A. M. (2003). Locating genes associated with Ascochyta fabae resistance in Vicia faba L. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 54, 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sarparast, R., Sheikh, F., & Sowghi, H. A. (2011). Investigation of genotype and environment interaction and cluster analysis for seed yield in different lines of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 2, 99–106 (in Persian).Google Scholar
  28. SAS Institute Inc. (2003). SAS/STATA guide for personal computers version 9.1 edition. Carry: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
  29. Sharifi, P., & Aminpana, H. (2014). Genetic variation in some faba bean genotypes. Tropical Agriculture, 91, 87–97.Google Scholar
  30. Sheikh, F., & Dehghani, H. (2014). Investigation of resistance to chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae sard) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Gorgan region. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 5, 139–150 (in Persian).Google Scholar
  31. Sillero, J. C., Villegas-Fernandez, A. M., Thomas, J., Rojas-Molina, M. M., Emeran, A. A., Fernandez-Aparicio, M., et al. (2010). Faba bean breeding for disease resistance. Field Crops Research, 115, 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singh, A. K., Bharati, R. C., Manibhushan, N. C., & Pedpati, A. (2013). An assessment of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) current status and future prospect. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8, 6634–6648.Google Scholar
  33. Sneath, P. H. A., & Sokal, R. R. (1973). Numerical taxonomy, the principles and practice of numerical classification. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  34. SPSS Inc. (2010). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0.Google Scholar
  35. Suheri, H., & Price, T. V. (2000). Infection of onion leaves by Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium and disease development in controlled environments. Plant Pathology, 49, 375–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Suresh, S., Park, J. H., Cho, G. T., Lee, H. S., Baek, H. J., & Lee, S. Y. (2013). Development and molecular characterization of 55 novel polymorphic cDNA-SSR markers in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L). using 454 pyrosequencing and jong-wook chung. Molecules, 18, 1844–1856.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Tivoli, B., Baranger, A., Avila, C. M., Banniza, S., Barbetti, M., Chen, W., et al. (2006). Screening techniques and sources of resistance to foliar diseases caused by major necrotrophic fungi in grain legumes. Euphytica, 147, 223–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Torres, A. M., Roman, B., Avila, C. M., Satovic, Z., Rubiales, D., Sillero, J. C., et al. (2006). Faba bean breeding for resistance against biotic stresses: towards application of marker technology. Euphytica, 147, 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Villegas-Fernandez, A. M., Sillero, J. C., & Rubiales, D. (2011). Screening faba bean for chocolate spot resistance: evaluation methods and effects of age of host tissue and temperature. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 132, 443–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yan, W. (2002). Singular-value partitioning in biplot analysis of multi-environment trial data. Agronomy Journal, 94, 990–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of AgricultureTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Plant Protection ResearchAgricultural Research Center and Natural Resource of GolestanGorganIran

Personalised recommendations