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Nitric oxide modulates redox-mediated defense in potato challenged with Phytophthora infestans

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Abstract

In our experimental approach we investigated how post-infection nitric oxide-dependent signaling activated in potato leaves was related to defense against avirulent (avr) and virulent (vr) races of Phytophthora infestans. Results revealed that only in an incompatible response, early NO and superoxide (O2 •-) generation led to peroxynitrite (ONOO) formation and together with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production synchronized with SOD activity induced effective defense against avr pathogen. Early oxidative and nitrosative bursts triggered an imbalance in redox homeostasis in inoculated tissue. To counteract that effect, a total antioxidative capacity, ascorbate and sulfhydryl (-SH) group compounds increased both synergistically and markedly, confirming the precise mechanism of redox re-adjustment in avr oomycete -potato interaction. Moreover, the NO-coded message was stored and converted into an enhanced total SNO pool and particular S-nitrosylation of targeted proteins. Overall, we identified 104 proteins typed for S-nitrosylation in mock- or P. infestans-inoculated potato leaves. The S-nitrosoproteome structure comprised a wide repertoire of proteins, i.e. defense- and redox-related. Finally, only in the incompatible interaction, NO-based signal was re-written on the rapid PR-1 gene and PR-2 protein activation and was tuned with a limitation of late blight disease symptoms.

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Acknowledgments

This study was funded from the National Science Centre (Preludium - grant number 2011/03/N/NZ9/00290). D. Abramowski would like to thank Dr. Christian Lindermayr, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, for advice in the biotin-switch assay.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Dariusz Abramowski.

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Fig. 5
figure 5

Late blight disease progress in potato leaves-excised discs inoculated with avr and vr P. infestans. Average area of P. infestans mycelium growth was 2.98 ± 0.17 % in avr P. infestans-treated potato; and 20.1 ± 1.6 % in vr P. infestans-treated potato. Values represent the average of data ± SD of six independent experiments with maintained randomization

Fig. 6
figure 6

Identification of S-nitrosylation targets in potato leaves: a immunodetection of S-nitrosylated proteins with the indication of the bands subjected to densytometric analysis, b negative and positive controls in BST, c protein content visualization using Coomassie blue staining, d functional categorization of the 104 identified S-nitrosylated proteins in potato leaves

Table 1 The list of S-nitrosylation targets in potato leaves subjected to P. infestans inoculation

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Abramowski, D., Arasimowicz-Jelonek, M., Izbiańska, K. et al. Nitric oxide modulates redox-mediated defense in potato challenged with Phytophthora infestans . Eur J Plant Pathol 143, 237–260 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-015-0677-9

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