Fifty-six native isolates collected in 12 farming districts of Trinidad and seven reference strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris were evaluated for resistance to copper in buffered (pH 7.0) and unbuffered (pH 5.6) nutrient agar media. All isolates and reference strains were pathogenic and elicited typical black rot symptoms on a susceptible variety of Brassica olearceae, ‘Copenhagen Market’. Thirty-four and thirty-three native isolates were highly resistant to copper (growth on ≥ 200 ppm copper) in buffered and unbuffered media, respectively; however, all the reference strains were highly susceptible to copper. The mean minimum inhibition concentration for the 56 native isolates was 224.6 ppm copper indicating that high levels of copper resistance are present in X. campestris pv. campestris in Trinidad. The association between growth of the 56 isolates and seven reference stains on buffered and unbuffered media was strong (Pearson’s and Spearman’s r = 0.93; P < 0.01) suggesting that either medium can be used to evaluate resistance to copper in X. campestris pv. campestris. There was also a strong association between length of time of continuous applications of copper formulations to treat black rot disease and proportion of the native X. campestris pv. campestris with resistance to copper (Pearson’s r = 0.96; Spearman’s r = 0.93); however, there was no association between resistance to copper and aggressiveness at 10 days after inoculation.
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The authors wish to thank the The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine for funding this study and the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida for technical support and assistance provided.
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Lugo, A.J., Elibox, W., Jones, J.B. et al. Copper resistance in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris affecting crucifers in Trinidad. Eur J Plant Pathol 136, 61–70 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-012-0138-7
- Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris
- Black rot disease
- Copper resistance