European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 119, Issue 2, pp 175–182 | Cite as

AFLP analysis of Russian Alternaria tenuissima populations from wheat kernels and other hosts

  • Philipp B. GannibalEmail author
  • Sonja S. Klemsdal
  • Mark M. Levitin
Full Research Paper


Alternaria tenuissima is a common pathogen on a number of plants described in several geographic regions of the world. Genetic variation within and between Russian Far East, North West and Caucasus populations of A. tenuissima from wheat was examined. In addition, genetic differences between isolates from various hosts were estimated. In total, 101 isolates of A. tenuissima were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with four primer combinations. Wright’s fixation index (F st), gene flow (N m) and gene diversity (H s) were calculated. AFLP banding patterns indicated significant genetic distance and at the same time a low level of gene flow between the Far East and the two other groups of isolates originating from the European part of country. The degree of similarity between the North West and Caucasus populations was very high, as was the migration rate. Isolates analysed by UPGMA-based cluster analysis were grouped according to location of origin but irrespective of plant host. Based on the F st value, the group of isolates originating from wheat and barley were not found to differ significantly from each other.


Genetic distance Host specialization Population structure 



This work was supported in part by The Research Council of Norway, Fellowship programme for collaboration within higher education and research between Norway and Northwestern Russia (EJ/hsm IS Rus 03/04-89). The authors are grateful to Dr. E. G. Simmons (USA) for providing cultures.


  1. Andersen, B., Thrane, U., Svendsen, A., & Rasmussen, I. A. (1996). Associated field mycobiota on malt barley. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74, 854–858.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen, B., Krøger, E., & Roberts, R. G. (2002). Chemical and morphological segregation of Alternaria arborescens, A. infectoria and A. tenuissima species-group. Mycological Research, 106, 170–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angulo-Romero, J., Mediavilla-Molina, A., & Dominguez-Vilches, E. (1999). Conidia of Alternaria in the atmosphere of the city of Cordoba, Spain in relation to meteorological parameters. International Journal of Biometeorology, 43, 45–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belisario, A., Maccaroni, M., Coramusi, A., & Corazza, L. (2004). First report of Alternaria species groups involved in disease complexes of hazelnut and walnut fruits. Plant Disease, 88, 426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonants, P. J. M., Hagenaar-de Weerdt, M., Man in’t Veld, W. A., & Baayen, R. P. (2000). Molecular characterization of natural hybrids of Phytophthora nicotianae and P. cactorum. Phytopathology, 90, 867–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dixit, A., Lewis, W., Baty, J., Crozier, W., & Wedner, J. (2000). Deuteromycete aerobiology and skinreactivity patterns. A two year concurrent study in Corpus Christi, Texas, USA. Grana, 39, 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eikemo, H., Klemsdal, S. S., Riisberg, I., Bonants, P., Stensvand, A., & Tronsmo, A. M. (2004). Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry. Mycological Research, 108, 317–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gannibal, Ph. B. (2004). Small-spored species of the genus Alternaria on grasses. Micologiya i Fitopatologiya, 38, 19–28 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  9. Honda, Y., Rahman, M. Z., Islam, S. Z., & Muroguchi, N. (2001). Leaf spot disease of broad bean caused by Alternaria tenuissima in Japan. Plant Disease, 85, 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kosiak, B., Torp, M., Skjerve, E., & Andersen, B. (2004). Alternaria and Fusarium in Norwegian grains of reduced quality—a matched pair sample study. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 93, 51–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee, H. B., & Kim, C. -J. (2001). First report of strawberry fruit rot caused by Alternaria tenuissima in Korea. Plant Disease, 85, 563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Logrieco, A., Bottalico, A., Solfrizzo, M., & Müle, G. (1990). Incidence of Alternaria species in grains from Mediterranean countries and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Mycologia, 82, 501–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mitakakis, T. Z., & McGee, P. A. (2000). Reliability of measures of spores of Alternaria and pollen concentrations in air over two towns in rural Australia. Multiple sites for Burkard sampling. Grana, 39, 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Neergaard, P. (1945). Danish species of Alternaria and Stemphylium. Taxonomy, parasitism, economical significance. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, Oxford University Press, 560 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Nei, M. (1973). Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 70, 3321–3323.Google Scholar
  16. Nei, M., & Li, W. -H. (1979). Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 76, 5269–5273.Google Scholar
  17. Pavlova, T. V., & Mikhailova, L. A. (1997). Role of Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm. f. sp. tritici spores migration in fungal population development and spread of epiphytotics. Micologiya i Fitopatologiya, 31, 60–66 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  18. Peakall, R., & Smouse, P. E. (2001). GenAlEx V5: Genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University.Google Scholar
  19. Pryor, B. M., & Michailides, T. J. (2002). Morphological, pathogenic, and molecular characterization of Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria late blight of pistachio. Phytopathology, 92, 406–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Roberts, R. G., Reymond, S. T., & Andersen, B. (2000). RAPD fragment pattern analysis and morphological segregation of small-spored Alternaria species and species groups. Mycological Research, 104, 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rotem, J. (1994). The genus Alternaria. Biology, epidemiology and pathogenicity. St. Paul, Minnesota: APS Press, 326 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Schneider, S., Roessli, D., & Excoffier, L. (2000). Arlequin ver. 2.000. A Software for population genetic data analysis. Geneva, Switzerland: Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva.Google Scholar
  23. Serdani, M., Kang, J.-Ch., Andersen, B., & Crous, P. W. (2002). Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa. Mycological Research, 106, 561–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Simmons, E. G. (1990). Alternaria themes and variations (27–53). Mycotaxon, 22, 79–119.Google Scholar
  25. Simmons, E. G. (1993). Alternaria themes and variations (63–72). Mycotaxon, 48, 91–107.Google Scholar
  26. Simmons, E. G. (1995). Alternaria themes and variations (112–144). Mycotaxon, 55, 55–163.Google Scholar
  27. Simmons, E. G. (1999). Alternaria themes and variations (236–243). Host-specific toxin producers. Mycotaxon, 70, 325–369.Google Scholar
  28. Simmons, E. G., & Roberts, R. G. (1993). Alternaria themes and variations (73). Mycotaxon, 58, 109–140.Google Scholar
  29. Slatkin, M., & Barton, N. H. (1989). A comparison of three indirect methods for estimating average levels of gene flow. Evolution, 43, 1349–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Taylor, J. W., Geiser, D. M., Burt, A., & Koufopanou, V. (1999). The evolutionary biology and population genetics underlying fungal strain typing. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12, 126–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Van de Peer, Y., & De Wachter, R. (1994). Treecon for Windows: a software package for the construction and drawing of evolutionary trees for the Microsoft Windows environment. Computer Applications in Bioscience, 10, 569–570.Google Scholar
  32. Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M., Reijans, M., Van de Lee, T., Hornes, M., Frijters, A., Pot, J., Peleman, J., Kuiper, M., & Zabeau, M. (1995). AFLP—a new technique for DNA-fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Research, 23, 4407–4414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Webley, D. J., & Jackson, K. L. (1998). Mycotoxins in cereals—a comparison between North America, Europe and Australia. Australian Postharvest Technical Conference, 63–66.Google Scholar
  34. Webley, D. J., Jackson, K. L., Mullins, J. D., Hocking, A. D., & Pitt, J. I. (1997). Alternaria toxins in weather-damaged wheat and sorghum in the 1995–1996 Australian harvest. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 48, 1249–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wright, S. (1943). Isolation by distance. Genetics, 28, 114–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yeh, F. C., Yang, R., & Boyle, T. (1999). Popgene version 1.31. Microsoft Windows-based freeware for population genetic analysis. Canada: University of Alberta.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© KNPV 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipp B. Gannibal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sonja S. Klemsdal
    • 2
  • Mark M. Levitin
    • 1
  1. 1.All-Russian Institute of Plant ProtectionSt. Petersburg, PushkinRussia
  2. 2.Plant Health and Plant Protection DivisionBioforsk – Norwegian Institute of Agricultural and Environmental ResearchAasNorway

Personalised recommendations