European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 101–105 | Cite as

Occurrence of Resistance-breaking Populations of Root-knot Nematodes on Tomato in Greece

  • Emmanuel A. TzortzakakisEmail author
  • Mohamed A. M. Adam
  • Vivian C. Blok
  • Charalampos Paraskevopoulos
  • Kostas Bourtzis
Short communication


Nine populations of Meloidogyne spp. from Greece have been identified as M. javanica or M. incognita using either isozyme phenotypes or the sequence characterized amplified region-polymerase chain reaction (SCAR-PCR) technique. Virulence against the Mi resistance gene was assayed by pot experiments in controlled conditions and revealed the ability of five populations of M. javanica and one population of M. incognita to reproduce on tomato cultivars containing that gene. A resistance-breaking population of M. incognita is reported for the first time in the country; the M. javanica populations constitute new records for the Greek mainland.


identification isozyme phenotype Meloidogyne incognita Meloidogyne javanica Mi gene SCAR-PCR virulence 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Blok, VC, Phillips, MS, Fargette, M 1997Comparison of sequences from the ribosomal DNA intergenic region of Meloidogyne mayaguensis and other major root- knot nematodesJournal of Nematology291622Google Scholar
  2. Castagnone-Sereno, P, Bongiovanni, M, Dalmasso, A 1993Stable virulence against the tomato resistance Mi gene in the parthenogenetic root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognitaPhytopathology83803805Google Scholar
  3. Castagnone-Sereno, P, Bongiovanni, M, Dalmasso, A 1994Reproduction of virulent isolates of Meloidogyne incognita on susceptible and Mi – resistant tomatoJournal of Nematology26324328Google Scholar
  4. Castagnone-Sereno, P, Esparrago, G, Abad, P, Leroy, F, Bongiovanni, M 1995Satellite DNA as a target for PCR-specific detection of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne haplaCurrent Genetics28566570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Eddaoudi, M, Ammati, M, Rammah, A 1997Identification of resistance-breaking populations of Meloidogyne on tomatoes in Morocco and their effect on new sources of resistanceFundamental and Applied Nematology20285289Google Scholar
  6. Jarquin-Barberena, H, Dalmasso, A, Guiran, G, Cardin, M-C 1991Acquired virulence in the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. 1. Biological analysis of the phenomenonReview de Nematologie14261275Google Scholar
  7. Karssen, G, Hoenselaar, TV, Verkerk-Bakker, B, Janssen, R 1995Species identification of cyst and root-knot nematodes from potato by electrophoresis of individual femalesElectrophoresis16105109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Molinari, S, Miacola, C 1997Interactions between resistant tomato cultivars and Meloidogyne spp. in vitroNematologia Mediteranea256371Google Scholar
  9. Ornat C, Verdejo-Lucas S, Sorribas, FJ 2001A population of Meloidogyne javanica in Spain virulent to the Mi resistance gene in tomatoPlant Disease85271276Google Scholar
  10. Philis, J, Vakis, N 1977Resistance of tomato varieties to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica in CyprusNematologia Mediteranea53944Google Scholar
  11. Sambrook, J, Fritsch, EF, Maniatis, T 1989Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual2Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressCold Spring, NY, USA1659Google Scholar
  12. Tzortzakakis, EA, Gowen, SR 1996Occurrence of a resistance-breaking pathotype of Meloidogyne javanica on tomatoes in Crete, GreeceFundamental and Applied Nematology19283288Google Scholar
  13. Tzortzakakis, EA, Blok, VC, Phillips, MS, Trudgill, DL 1999Variation in root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp) in Crete in relation to control with resistant tomato and pepperNematology1499506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Williamson, V 1998Root-knot nematode resistance genes in tomato and their potential for future useAnnual Review of Phytopathology36277293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Zijlstra, C, Donkers-Venne, DTHM, Fargette, M 2000Identification of Meloidogyne incognita, M javanica and M arenaria using sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) based PCR assaysNematology2847853CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuel A. Tzortzakakis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohamed A. M. Adam
    • 2
  • Vivian C. Blok
    • 2
  • Charalampos Paraskevopoulos
    • 3
  • Kostas Bourtzis
    • 3
  1. 1.Nematology Laboratory, Plant Protection InstituteNational Agricultural Research FoundationHeraklion CreteGreece
  2. 2.Scottish Crop Research InstitutePlant Pathogen Interactions ProgramDundeeUK
  3. 3.Department of Environmental and Natural Resources ManagementUniversity of IoanninaAgrinionGreece

Personalised recommendations