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Cohort profile: Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes (S-PRESTO)


The Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes (S-PRESTO) is a preconception, longitudinal cohort study that aims to study the effects of nutrition, lifestyle, and maternal mood prior to and during pregnancy on the epigenome of the offspring and clinically important outcomes including duration of gestation, fetal growth, metabolic and neural phenotypes in the offspring. Between February 2015 and October 2017, the S-PRESTO study recruited 1039 Chinese, Malay or Indian (or any combinations thereof) women aged 18–45 years and who intended to get pregnant and deliver in Singapore, resulting in 1032 unique participants and 373 children born in the cohort. The participants were followed up for 3 visits during the preconception phase and censored at 12 months of follow up if pregnancy was not achieved (N = 557 censored). Women who successfully conceived (N = 475) were characterised at gestational weeks 6–8, 11–13, 18–21, 24–26, 27–28 and 34–36. Follow up of their index offspring (N = 373 singletons) is on-going at birth, 1, 3 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months and beyond. Women are also being followed up post-delivery. Data is collected via interviewer-administered questionnaires, metabolic imaging (magnetic resonance imaging), standardized anthropometric measurements and collection of diverse specimens, i.e. blood, urine, buccal smear, stool, skin tapes, epithelial swabs at numerous timepoints. S-PRESTO has extensive repeated data collected which include genetic and epigenetic sampling from preconception which is unique in mother–offspring epidemiological cohorts. This enables prospective assessment of a wide array of potential determinants of future health outcomes in women from preconception to post-delivery and in their offspring across the earliest development from embryonic stages into early childhood. In addition, the S-PRESTO study draws from the three major Asian ethnic groups that represent 50% of the global population, increasing the relevance of its findings to global efforts to address non-communicable diseases.

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We thank the S-PRESTO study group and all clinical and home-visit staff involved. The voluntary participation of all participants is greatly appreciated. The S-PRESTO study group includes includes Airu Chia, Anna Magdalena Fogel, Anne Eng Neo Goh, Anne Hin Yee Chu, Anne Rifkin-Graboi, Anqi Qiu, Bee Wah Lee, Bobby Kyungbeom Cheon, Candida Vaz, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Ciaran Gerard Forde, Claudia Chi, Dawn Xin Ping Koh, Desiree Y. Phua, Doris Ngiuk Lan Loh, Elaine Phaik Ling Quah, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Evelyn Chung Ning Law, Faidon Magkos, Falk Mueller-Riemenschneider, George Seow Heong Yeo, Hannah Ee Juen Yong, Helen Yu Chen, Heng Hao Tan, Hong Pan, Hugo P S van Bever, Hui Min Tan, Izzuddin Bin Mohd Aris, Jeannie Tay, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, Jia Xu, Joanne Su-Yin Yoong, Johan Gunnar Eriksson, Jonathan Tze Liang Choo, Jonathan Y. Bernard, Jonathan Yinhao Huang, Jun Shi Lai, Karen Mei Ling Tan, Keith M. Godfrey, Kenneth Yung Chiang Kwek, Keri McCrickerd, Kothandaraman Narasimhan, Kok Wee Chong, Kuan Jin Lee, Li Chen, Lieng Hsi Ling, Ling-Wei Chen, Lourdes Mary Daniel, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Marielle V. Fortier, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Mei Chien Chua, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Michelle Zhi Ling Kee, Min Gong, Mya Thway Tint, Navin Michael, Ngee Lek, Oon Hoe Teoh, Priti Mishra, Queenie Ling Jun Li, Sambasivam Sendhil Velan, Seng Bin Ang, Shirong Cai, Si Hui Goh, Sok Bee Lim, Stella Tsotsi, Stephen Chin-Ying Hsu, Sue-Anne Ee Shiow Toh, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Teng Hong Tan, Tong Wei Yew, Varsha Gupta, Victor Samuel Rajadurai, Wee Meng Han, Wei Wei Pang, Wen Lun Yuan, Yanan Zhu, Yin Bun Cheung, Yiong Huak Chan ands Zai Ru Cheng


This work is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Translational and Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Programme and administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health’s National Medical Research Council (NMRC), Singapore - NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008; NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014. Additional funding is provided by the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science and Technology.

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Correspondence to Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo.

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Conflict of interest

Chong YS has received reimbursement for speaking at conferences sponsored by Abbott Nutrition, Nestle, and Danone. Godfrey KM, Chan SY and Lee YS has received reimbursement for speaking at conferences sponsored by Nestle and Shek LP has received reimbursement for speaking at -conferences sponsored by Danone and Nestle and consulting for Mead Johnson and Nestle. Godfrey KM, Chong YS, Chan SY and Karnani N are part of an academic consortium that has received research funding from Abbot Nutrition, Nestle and Danone. Shek LP has received research funding from Danone.

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Loo, E.X.L., Soh, SE., Loy, S.L. et al. Cohort profile: Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes (S-PRESTO). Eur J Epidemiol 36, 129–142 (2021).

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