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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants (n = 6798)

From: Plant versus animal based diets and insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study

Characteristics Mean (SD) or %
Age (years) 62.0 (7.8)
Sex (% male) 41.3%
BMI (kg/m2) 26.6 (3.9)
Smoking status (%)
 Never 32.2%
 Ever 45.1%
 Current 22.7%
Physical activitya (MET-hours/week)
 RS-I and RS-II (assessed with Zutphen Questionnaire, n = 4393) 86.7 (44.7)
 RS-III (assessed with LASA Questionnaire, n = 2194) 58.4 (55.8)
Hypertension (%) 42.3%
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 45.4%
Family history of diabetes(%) 10.8%
Education level (%)
 Primary 11.8%
 Lower 40.9%
 Intermediate 29.0%
 Higher 18.3%
Current food supplement use (%) 16.5%
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 2134 (615)
Plant-based food category intakeb (g/day)
 Fruit 212.2 (115.5; 332.3)
 Vegetables 209.1 (147.9; 286.87)
 Whole grains 105.7 (61.3; 152.5)
 Nuts 3.9 (0.0; 12.0)
 Legumes 4.1 (0.0; 19.4)
 Potatoes 99.7 (61.4; 148.2)
 Vegetable oils 19.7 (9.2; 30.0)
 Tea and coffee 758.9 (580.4; 1000)
 Sugary beverages 46.3 (0.0; 139.6)
 Refined grains 50.7 (23.9; 102.1)
 Sweets 63.8 (37.1; 97.4)
 Alcoholic beverages 56.4 (4.9; 159.8)
Animal-based food category intake2 (g/day)
 Low-fat milk 82.3 (0.0; 232.3)
 Full-fat milk 0.0 (0.0; 0.0)
 Low-fat yoghurt 56.1 (0.0; 164.6)
 Full-fat yoghurt 0.0 (0.0; 4.9)
 Cheese 30.8 (20; 47.1)
 Unprocessed lean meat 10.7 (4.3; 18.1)
 Fish 15.9 (3.9; 30.7)
 Eggs 14.3 (7.1; 19.6)
 Animal fat 0.0 (0.0; 0.9)
 Desserts/dairy with sugars 14.1 (0.0; 54.6)
 Processed meat/red meat 86.8 (60.4; 118.9)
Plant-based dietary index (score) 49.3 (7.1)
  1. Plant-based dietary index: a higher score indicates a higher adherence to a plant-based diet (theoretical range from 0 to 92). Values shown are based on pooled results of imputed data
  2. MET metabolic equivalent of task, SD standard deviation
  3. aValues shown for MET-hours are un-imputed; imputation was performed on z-scores of physical activity
  4. bVariables expressed as median (IQR) because of their skewed distributions