European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 531–543 | Cite as

The heart of the matter: years-saved from cardiovascular and cancer deaths in an elite athlete cohort with over a century of follow-up

  • Juliana Antero-JacqueminEmail author
  • Maja Pohar-Perme
  • Grégoire Rey
  • Jean-François Toussaint
  • Aurélien Latouche


To quantify the years of life saved from cardiovascular (CVD), cancer and overall deaths among elite athletes according to their main type of physiological effort performed in the Olympic Games. All French athletes participating in the Games from 1912 to 2012, with vital status validated and cause of death (if concerned) identified by the national registries were included (n = 2814, 455 died) and classified according to 6 groups of effort: POWER (continuous effort < 45 s); INTERMEDIATE (45 s ≤ continuous effort < 600 s); ENDURANCE (continuous effort ≥ 600 s); POLYVALENT (participating in different events entering different classifications), INTERMITTENT (intermittent effort, i.e. team sports); PRECISION (targeting events). The theoretical years-lost method was adapted to calculate gains in longevity (years-saved) according to specific-risks under the competing risks model and was implemented in R software. Considering overall-deaths, all groups significantly saved, on average, 6.5 years of life (95% CI 5.8–7.2) compared to the general population. This longevity advantage is mainly driven by a lower risk of cancer which, isolated, contributed to significantly save 2.3 years of life (95% CI 1.2–1.9) on average in each group. The risk of CVD-related mortality in the ENDURANCE and PRECISION groups is not significantly different from the general population. The other groups significantly saved, on average, 1.6 years of life (95% CI 1.2–1.9) from CVD death. The longevity benefits in elite athletes are associated with the type of effort performed during their career, mainly due to differences on the CVD-risk of death.


Mortality Athletes Cardiovascular Cancer Years-saved Years-lost 



The authors thank the Institute National du Sport de l’Expertise et de la Performance (INSEP) for its full support and Stacey Johnson for carefully checking English spelling.


This work was supported by grant from the Ministry of sports, youth, popular education and community life of France (Project no. 12-R-10).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Formal consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

10654_2018_401_MOESM1_ESM.docx (111 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 110 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juliana Antero-Jacquemin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maja Pohar-Perme
    • 2
  • Grégoire Rey
    • 3
  • Jean-François Toussaint
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • Aurélien Latouche
    • 6
  1. 1.Institut de Recherche bioMédicale et d’Epidémiologie du Sport (IRMES), Institut National du Sport, de l’Expertise et de la Performance (INSEP)ParisFrance
  2. 2.Institute of Biostastistics and Medical Informatics, Medical FacultyUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.Inserm CépiDc, Epidemiology Centre on Medical Causes of DeathLe Kremlin-BicêtreFrance
  4. 4.University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris CitéParisFrance
  5. 5.CIMS, Hôtel-Dieu, AP-HPParis Cedex 04France
  6. 6.Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM)ParisFrance

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