European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 197–210 | Cite as

Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe: the “European Eye Epidemiology” (E3) consortium

  • Cécile Delcourt
  • Jean-François Korobelnik
  • Gabriëlle H. S. Buitendijk
  • Paul J. Foster
  • Christopher J. Hammond
  • Stefano Piermarocchi
  • Tunde Peto
  • Nomdo Jansonius
  • Alireza Mirshahi
  • Ruth E. Hogg
  • Lionel Bretillon
  • Fotis Topouzis
  • Gabor Deak
  • Jakob Grauslund
  • Rebecca Broe
  • Eric H. Souied
  • Catherine Creuzot-Garcher
  • José Sahel
  • Vincent Daien
  • Terho Lehtimäki
  • Hans-Werner Hense
  • Elena Prokofyeva
  • Konrad Oexle
  • Jugnoo S. Rahi
  • Phillippa M. Cumberland
  • Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
  • Sascha Fauser
  • Geir Bertelsen
  • Carel Hoyng
  • Arthur Bergen
  • Rufino Silva
  • Sebastian Wolf
  • Andrew Lotery
  • Usha Chakravarthy
  • Astrid Fletcher
  • Caroline C. W. Klaver


The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case–control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact of visual outcomes in European populations (including temporal trends and European subregions), identification of risk factors and pathways for eye diseases (lifestyle, vascular and metabolic factors, genetics, epigenetics and biomarkers) and development and validation of prediction models for eye diseases. Coordinating these existing data will allow a detailed study of the risk factors and consequences of eye diseases and visual impairment, including study of international geographical variation which is not possible in individual studies. It is expected that collaborative work on these existing data will provide additional knowledge, despite the fact that the risk factors and the methods for collecting them differ somewhat among the participating studies. Most studies also include biobanks of various biological samples, which will enable identification of biomarkers to detect and predict occurrence and progression of eye diseases. This article outlines the rationale of the consortium, its design and presents a summary of the methodology.


Epidemiology Ophthalmology Eye diseases Prevalence Risk factors Europe 



The E3 consortium thanks Cécile Delcourt, Jean-François Korobelnik, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier and Marie-Noëlle Delyfer for organizing the meetings in Bordeaux in 2011, 2012 and 2013, Stefano Piermarocchi for organizing the meeting in Rome in 2014 and Chris Hammond, Paul Foster and Tunde Peto for organizing the meeting in London in 2015. These workshops have received financial support from Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Laboratoires Théa, Novartis and OOgroup.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

C Delcourt received research grants from Laboratoires Théa and is board member for Bausch + Lomb, Laboratoires Théa and Novartis; JF Korobelnik is consultant for Alcon, Allergan, Bayer, Horus, Novartis, Roche, Théa, Zeiss; P Foster received honoraria from Carl Zeiss Meditech and Allergan (UK) and travel grants and unrestricted research grants from Alcon; A Mirshahi received research grants from Novartis and Bayer; L Bretillon received research grants from Laboratoires Horus Pharma, Laboratoires, THEA, Laboratoires Fournier/Abbott, travel grants from Laboratoires Horus Pharma, honoraria from Laboratoires Chauvin Bausch & Lomb, and is consultant for Novartis; F Topouzis received support from a project sponsor from Pfizer, Novartis, Alcon and Laboratoires Thea, honoraria for speaking at symposia from Alcon and is board member for Alcon, Bausch + Lomb, Humphrey, Zeiss, Allergan, Pfizer, Laboratoires Théa and Novartis; EH Souied is board member for Novartis, Bayer, Thea, Allergan; J Sahel is founder of Pixium Vision and Gensight Biologics and is consultant for Pixium Vision, Gensight Biologics, Sanofi Fovea, Genesignal and Vision Medecine; R Silva is member of Advisory board for Allergan, Bayer, Alimera, Novartis, THEA, Alcon. Other authors have no potential conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10654_2015_98_MOESM1_ESM.docx (119 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 118 kb)


  1. 1.
    McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Hays RD, et al. Longitudinal changes in visual acuity and health-related quality of life: the Los Angeles Latino Eye study. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1900–7 (7 e1).CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seland JH, Vingerling JR, Augood CA, et al. Visual impairment and quality of life in the older European population, the EUREYE study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:608–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lam BL, Christ SL, Zheng DD, et al. longitudinal relationships among visual acuity and tasks of everyday life: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:193–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daien V, Peres K, Villain M, et al. Visual acuity thresholds associated with activity limitations in the elderly. The Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l’Age study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014;92:e500–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carriere I, Delcourt C, Daien V, et al. A prospective study of the bi-directional association between vision loss and depression in the elderly. J Affect Disord. 2013;151:164–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lamoureux EL, Fenwick E, Moore K, et al. Impact of the severity of distance and near-vision impairment on depression and vision-specific quality of life in older people living in residential care. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4103–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Patino CM, McKean-Cowdin R, Azen SP, et al. Central and peripheral visual impairment and the risk of falls and falls with injury. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(199–206):e1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yip JL, Khawaja AP, Broadway D, et al. Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:377–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gordois A, Cutler H, Pezzullo L, et al. An estimation of the worldwide economic and health burden of visual impairment. Glob Public Health. 2012;7:465–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pascolini D, Mariotti SP. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:614–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    He M, Abdou A, Naidoo KS, et al. Prevalence and correction of near vision impairment at seven sites in China, India, Nepal, Niger, South Africa, and the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154(107–16):e1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    World Health Organization. Action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and vision impairment, 2009–2013. 2010.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    World Health Organization. Universal eye health: a global action plan 2014–2019. 2013.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Drexler W, Fujimoto JG. State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2008;27:45–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Asbell PA, Dualan I, Mindel J, et al. Age-related cataract. Lancet. 2005;365:599–609.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leske MC, Chylack LT, He QM, et al. Risk factors for nuclear opalescence in a longitudinal study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147:36–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Delcourt C, Cristol JP, Tessier F, et al. Risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts: the POLA study. Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l’Age. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:497–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Ajani UA, et al. Smoking cessation and risk of age-related cataract in men. JAMA. 2000;284:713–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prokofyeva E, Wegener A, Zrenner E. Cataract prevalence and prevention in Europe: a literature review. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013;91:395–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vingerling JR, Hofman A, Grobbee DE, De Jong PT. Age-related macular degeneration and smoking. The Rotterdam Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:1193–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Delcourt C, Diaz JL, Ponton-Sanchez A, Papoz L. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration. The POLA Study. Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l’Age. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:1031–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith W, Assink J, Klein R, et al. Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: pooled findings from three continents. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:697–704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chakravarthy U, Augood C, Bentham GC, et al. Cigarette smoking and age-related macular degeneration in the EUREYE Study. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1157–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lim LS, Mitchell P, Seddon JM, Holz FG, Wong TY. Age-related macular degeneration. Lancet. 2012;379:1728–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Erke MG, Bertelsen G, Peto T, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Tromso Study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014;92:662–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Meuer SM. The epidemiology of retinal vein occlusion: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2000;98:133–41 (discussion 41–3).PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, Klein R. Ultraviolet light exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:1658–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    West SK, Duncan DD, Munoz B, et al. Sunlight exposure and risk of lens opacities in a population-based study: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project. JAMA. 1998;280:714–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Delcourt C, Carriere I, Ponton Sanchez A, et al. Light exposure and the risk of cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts: the Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l’Age (POLA) Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:385–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McCarty CA, Taylor HR. A review of the epidemiologic evidence linking ultraviolet radiation and cataracts. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;35:21–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Delcourt C, Cougnard-Gregroire A, Boniol M, et al. Lifetime exposure to ambient ultraviolet radiation and the risk for cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration: the Alienor Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:7619–27.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Threlfall TJ, English DR. Sun exposure and pterygium of the eye: a dose-response curve. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:280–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McCarty CA, Fu CL, Taylor HR. Epidemiology of pterygium in Victoria, Australia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:289–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fletcher AE, Bentham GC, Agnew M, et al. Sunlight exposure, antioxidants, and age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1396–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, et al. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case–Control Study Group JAMA. 1994;272:1413–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Delcourt C, Cristol JP, Tessier F, et al. Age-related macular degeneration and antioxidant status in the POLA study. POLA Study Group. Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l’Age. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:1384–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, Vingerling JR, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA. 2005;294:3101–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tan JS, Wang JJ, Flood V, et al. Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:334–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mares Perlman JA, Fisher AI, Klein R, et al. Lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and their relation to age-related maculopathy in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:424–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Delcourt C, Carriere I, Delage M, Barberger-Gateau P, Schalch W. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and other carotenoids as modifiable risk factors for age-related maculopathy and cataract: the POLA Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2329–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ho L, van Leeuwen R, Witteman JC, et al. Reducing the genetic risk of age-related macular degeneration with dietary antioxidants, zinc, and ω-3 fatty acids: the Rotterdam study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:758–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lyle BJ, Maresperlman JA, Klein BEK, Klein R, Greger JL. Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149:801–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gale CR, Hall NF, Phillips DI, Martyn CN. Plasma antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids and age-related cataract. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:1992–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Christen WG, Liu S, Glynn RJ, Gaziano JM, Buring JE. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of cataract in women: a prospective study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:102–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fletcher AE. Free radicals, antioxidants and eye diseases: evidence from epidemiological studies on cataract and age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmic Res. 2010;44:191–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    AREDS. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1417–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith W, Mitchell P, Leeder SR. Dietary fat and fish intake and age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:401–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cho E, Hung S, Willett WC, et al. Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:209–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Seddon JM, Rosner B, Sperduto RD, et al. Dietary fat and risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1191–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Delcourt C, Carriere I, Cristol JP, Lacroux A, Gerber M. Dietary fat and the risk of age-related maculopathy: the POLANUT study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61:1341–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    SanGiovanni JP, Agron E, Clemons TE, Chew EY. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake inversely associated with 12-year progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:110–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tan JS, Wang JJ, Flood V, Mitchell P. Dietary Fatty acids and the 10-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the blue mountains eye study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:656–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Merle B, Delyfer MN, Korobelnik JF, et al. Dietary omega-3 Fatty acids and the risk for age-related maculopathy: the alienor study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6004–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Merle BM, Benlian P, Puche N, et al. Circulating omega-3 fatty acids and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:2010–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Augood C, Chakravarthy U, Young I, et al. Oily fish consumption, dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid intakes, and associations with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:398–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chiu CJ, Milton RC, Gensler G, Taylor A. Dietary carbohydrate intake and glycemic index in relation to cortical and nuclear lens opacities in the age-related Eye Disease study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:1177–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chiu CJ, Robman L, McCarty CA, et al. Dietary carbohydrate in relation to cortical and nuclear lens opacities in the melbourne visual impairment project. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2897–905.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mares JA, Voland R, Adler R, et al. Healthy diets and the subsequent prevalence of nuclear cataract in women. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:738–49.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cheung N, Mitchell P, Wong TY. Diabetic retinopathy. Lancet. 2010;376:124–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2224–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zins M, Bonenfant S, Carton M, et al. The CONSTANCES cohort: an open epidemiological laboratory. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:479.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fritsche LG, Chen W, Schu M, et al. Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration. Nat Genet. 2013;45:433–9 (9e1-2).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Verhoeven VJ, Hysi PG, Wojciechowski R, et al. Genome-wide meta-analyses of multiancestry cohorts identify multiple new susceptibility loci for refractive error and myopia. Nat Genet. 2013;45:314–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hysi PG, Cheng CY, Springelkamp H, et al. Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:1126–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Buitendijk GH, Rochtchina E, Myers C, et al. Prediction of age-related macular degeneration in the general population: the Three Continent AMD Consortium. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:2644–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bourne RR, Jonas JB, Flaxman SR, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe: 1990–2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98:629–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Williams KM, Verhoeven VJ, Cumberland P, et al. Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. Eur J Epidemiol. 2015;30:305–15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Williams KM, Bertelsen G, Cumberland P, et al. Increasing prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the impact of education. Ophthalmology. 2015;122:1489–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cécile Delcourt
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jean-François Korobelnik
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gabriëlle H. S. Buitendijk
    • 4
    • 9
  • Paul J. Foster
    • 5
  • Christopher J. Hammond
    • 6
  • Stefano Piermarocchi
    • 7
  • Tunde Peto
    • 5
  • Nomdo Jansonius
    • 8
    • 9
  • Alireza Mirshahi
    • 10
  • Ruth E. Hogg
    • 11
  • Lionel Bretillon
    • 12
    • 13
    • 14
  • Fotis Topouzis
    • 15
  • Gabor Deak
    • 16
  • Jakob Grauslund
    • 17
    • 18
  • Rebecca Broe
    • 17
    • 18
  • Eric H. Souied
    • 19
  • Catherine Creuzot-Garcher
    • 12
    • 13
    • 14
    • 20
  • José Sahel
    • 21
    • 22
    • 23
    • 24
    • 25
    • 26
  • Vincent Daien
    • 27
    • 28
    • 29
  • Terho Lehtimäki
    • 30
    • 31
  • Hans-Werner Hense
    • 32
  • Elena Prokofyeva
    • 33
    • 34
    • 35
  • Konrad Oexle
    • 36
  • Jugnoo S. Rahi
    • 5
    • 37
    • 38
  • Phillippa M. Cumberland
    • 37
    • 38
  • Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
    • 39
  • Sascha Fauser
    • 40
  • Geir Bertelsen
    • 41
    • 42
  • Carel Hoyng
    • 43
  • Arthur Bergen
    • 44
  • Rufino Silva
    • 45
    • 46
    • 47
  • Sebastian Wolf
    • 48
  • Andrew Lotery
    • 49
  • Usha Chakravarthy
    • 11
  • Astrid Fletcher
    • 50
  • Caroline C. W. Klaver
    • 4
    • 9
  1. 1.Univ. BordeauxISPEDBordeaux CedexFrance
  2. 2.INSERMCentre INSERM U897-Epidemiologie-BiostatistiqueBordeauxFrance
  3. 3.Service d’OphtalmologieCHU de BordeauxBordeauxFrance
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.NIHR Biomedical Research CentreMoorfields Eye Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of OphthalmologyLondonUK
  6. 6.Department of Ophthalmology, Department of Twin Research and Genetic EpidemiologyKing’s College London, St Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK
  7. 7.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly
  8. 8.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Groningen, University Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  9. 9.Department of EpidemiologyErasmus Medical Center RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  10. 10.Department OphthalmologyUniversity Medical CenterMainzGermany
  11. 11.Centre for Experimental MedicineQueen’s University of BelfastBelfastUK
  12. 12.INRAUMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’AlimentationDijonFrance
  13. 13.CNRSUMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’AlimentationDijonFrance
  14. 14.Université de BourgogneCentre des Sciences du Goût et de l’AlimentationDijonFrance
  15. 15.Laboratory of Research and Clinical Applications in Ophthalmology, Department of OphthalmologyAristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  16. 16.Vienna Reading Center, Department of OphthalmologyMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  17. 17.Research Unit of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  18. 18.Department of OphthalmologyOdense University HospitalOdenseDenmark
  19. 19.Service d’ophtalmologie, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Creteil, CRC, CRBUniversite Paris EstCreteilFrance
  20. 20.Department of OphthalmologyCHUDijonFrance
  21. 21.Institut de la VisionUPMC Univ Paris 06ParisFrance
  22. 22.INSERMParisFrance
  23. 23.CNRSParisFrance
  24. 24.Centre Hospitalier National d’Ophtalmologie des Quinze-VingtsParisFrance
  25. 25.Fondation Ophtalmologique RothschildParisFrance
  26. 26.Institute of OphthalmologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  27. 27.INSERMMontpellierFrance
  28. 28.Univ Montpellier 1MontpellierFrance
  29. 29.Department of OphthalmologyGui De Chauliac HospitalMontpellierFrance
  30. 30.Department of Clinical ChemistryFimlab LaboratoriesTampereFinland
  31. 31.University of Tampere School of MedicineTampereFinland
  32. 32.Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Social MedicineUniversity MünsterMünsterGermany
  33. 33.INSERM, U1018, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP)Epidemiology of Occupational and Social Determinants of HealthVillejuifFrance
  34. 34.Université de Versailles Saint-QuentinVillejuifFrance
  35. 35.Northern State Medical UniversityArkhangelskRussia
  36. 36.Institute of Human GeneticsTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  37. 37.Population, Policy and Practice ProgrammeUCL Institute of Child HealthLondonUK
  38. 38.Ulverscroft Vision Research GroupUCL Institute of Child HealthLondonUK
  39. 39.Department of Ophthalmology, GRADE Reading CenterUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  40. 40.Center of OphthalmologyUniversity Hospital CologneCologneGermany
  41. 41.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity Hospital of North NorwayTromsøNorway
  42. 42.Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  43. 43.Department of OphthalmologyRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  44. 44.Department of Clinical GeneticsAcademic Medical CentreAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  45. 45.Department of OphthalmologyCentro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra (CHUC)CoimbraPortugal
  46. 46.Faculty of Medicine (FMUC)University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  47. 47.Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image (AIBILI)CoimbraPortugal
  48. 48.Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, University HospitalUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  49. 49.Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  50. 50.Faculty of Epidemiology and Population HealthLondon School of Hygiene & Tropical MedicineLondonUK

Personalised recommendations