Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe: the “European Eye Epidemiology” (E3) consortium
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The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case–control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact of visual outcomes in European populations (including temporal trends and European subregions), identification of risk factors and pathways for eye diseases (lifestyle, vascular and metabolic factors, genetics, epigenetics and biomarkers) and development and validation of prediction models for eye diseases. Coordinating these existing data will allow a detailed study of the risk factors and consequences of eye diseases and visual impairment, including study of international geographical variation which is not possible in individual studies. It is expected that collaborative work on these existing data will provide additional knowledge, despite the fact that the risk factors and the methods for collecting them differ somewhat among the participating studies. Most studies also include biobanks of various biological samples, which will enable identification of biomarkers to detect and predict occurrence and progression of eye diseases. This article outlines the rationale of the consortium, its design and presents a summary of the methodology.
KeywordsEpidemiology Ophthalmology Eye diseases Prevalence Risk factors Europe
The E3 consortium thanks Cécile Delcourt, Jean-François Korobelnik, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier and Marie-Noëlle Delyfer for organizing the meetings in Bordeaux in 2011, 2012 and 2013, Stefano Piermarocchi for organizing the meeting in Rome in 2014 and Chris Hammond, Paul Foster and Tunde Peto for organizing the meeting in London in 2015. These workshops have received financial support from Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Laboratoires Théa, Novartis and OOgroup.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
C Delcourt received research grants from Laboratoires Théa and is board member for Bausch + Lomb, Laboratoires Théa and Novartis; JF Korobelnik is consultant for Alcon, Allergan, Bayer, Horus, Novartis, Roche, Théa, Zeiss; P Foster received honoraria from Carl Zeiss Meditech and Allergan (UK) and travel grants and unrestricted research grants from Alcon; A Mirshahi received research grants from Novartis and Bayer; L Bretillon received research grants from Laboratoires Horus Pharma, Laboratoires, THEA, Laboratoires Fournier/Abbott, travel grants from Laboratoires Horus Pharma, honoraria from Laboratoires Chauvin Bausch & Lomb, and is consultant for Novartis; F Topouzis received support from a project sponsor from Pfizer, Novartis, Alcon and Laboratoires Thea, honoraria for speaking at symposia from Alcon and is board member for Alcon, Bausch + Lomb, Humphrey, Zeiss, Allergan, Pfizer, Laboratoires Théa and Novartis; EH Souied is board member for Novartis, Bayer, Thea, Allergan; J Sahel is founder of Pixium Vision and Gensight Biologics and is consultant for Pixium Vision, Gensight Biologics, Sanofi Fovea, Genesignal and Vision Medecine; R Silva is member of Advisory board for Allergan, Bayer, Alimera, Novartis, THEA, Alcon. Other authors have no potential conflict of interest.
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