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Development of the standards of reporting of neurological disorders (STROND) checklist: a guideline for the reporting of incidence and prevalence studies in neuroepidemiology


Incidence and prevalence studies of neurological disorders play an important role in assessing the burden of disease and planning services. However, the assessment of disease estimates is hindered by problems in reporting for such studies. Despite a growth in published reports, existing guidelines relate to analytical rather than descriptive epidemiological studies. There are also no user-friendly tools (e.g., checklists) available for authors, editors and peer-reviewers to facilitate best practice in reporting of descriptive epidemiological studies for most neurological disorders. The Standards of Reporting of Neurological Disorders (STROND) is a guideline that consists of recommendations and a checklist to facilitate better reporting of published incidence and prevalence studies of neurological disorders. A review of previously developed guidance was used to produce a list of items required for incidence and prevalence studies in neurology. A three-round Delphi technique was used to identify the ‘basic minimum items’ important for reporting, as well as some additional ‘ideal reporting items’. An e-consultation process was then used in order to gauge opinion by external neuroepidemiological experts on the appropriateness of the items included in the checklist. Of 38 candidate items, 15 items and accompanying recommendations were developed along with a user-friendly checklist. The introduction and use of the STROND checklist should lead to more consistent, transparent and contextualised reporting of descriptive neuroepidemiological studies resulting in more applicable and comparable findings and ultimately support better healthcare decisions.

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Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Derrick A. Bennett.

Additional information

Suzanne Barker-Collo, Michael Brainin, Daniel Davis, Valentina Gallo, Nathalie Jetté, André Karch, John F Kurtzke, Pablo M. Lavados, Giancarlo Logroscino, Gabriele Nagel, Pierre-Marie Preux, Peter M. Rothwell and Lawrence W. Svenson authors are in alphabetical order.

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Core standard of reporting of neurological disorders (STROND) development team

Dr Derrick Bennett (Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK); Professor Carol Brayne (Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK); Professor Valery Feigin (National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand), Helen McDonald. National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand).

Standard of reporting of neurological disorders (STROND) collaborators

Professor Michael Brainin (Department for Clinical Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Danube-University Krems, Austria; Professor Pierre-Marie Preux, Institute of Tropical Neurology, University of Limoges, Limoges, France; Professor Peter Rothwell, Stroke Prevention Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Dr Pablo M. Lavados, Vascular Neurology and Stroke Unit, Neurology Service, Department of Medicine, Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Universidad del Desarrollo and Department of Neurological Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Institute of Neurosurgery, Santiago, Chile; Emeritus Professor John F Kurtzke, Georgetown UniversityUSA.; Dr Suzanne Barker-Collo (Department of Psychology, University of Auckland, New Zealand). Dr Daniel Davis (Faculty of Population Health Sciences, University College London, UK.); Dr Valentina Gallo, Centre of Primary Care and Public Health, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, UK; Dr Nathalie Jetté, Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Department of Community Health Sciences and O’Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Canada; André Karch, Research Group Epidemiology and Statistical Methods, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research; Lawrence W. Svenson, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Canada; Professor Giancarlo Logroscino, Neurodegenerative Diseases Unit, Department of Basic Medicine, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, and Department of Clinical Research in Neurology presso Fondazione Card Panico. Tricase,University Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.; Gabriele Nagel, Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

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Bennett, D.A., Brayne, C., Feigin, V.L. et al. Development of the standards of reporting of neurological disorders (STROND) checklist: a guideline for the reporting of incidence and prevalence studies in neuroepidemiology. Eur J Epidemiol 30, 569–576 (2015).

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  • Neurology
  • Epidemiology
  • Incidence
  • Prevalence
  • Reporting
  • Checklist