Several prospective studies considered the relation between coffee consumption and mortality. Most studies, however, were underpowered to detect an association, since they included relatively few deaths. To obtain quantitative overall estimates, we combined all published data from prospective studies on the relation of coffee with mortality for all causes, all cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary/ischemic heart disease (CHD/IHD) and stroke. A bibliography search, updated to January 2013, was carried out in PubMed and Embase to identify prospective observational studies providing quantitative estimates on mortality from all causes, cancer, CVD, CHD/IHD or stroke in relation to coffee consumption. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate overall relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. The pooled RRs of all cause mortality for the study-specific highest versus low (≤1 cup/day) coffee drinking categories were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.84–0.93) based on all the 23 studies, and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.82–0.93) for the 19 smoking adjusting studies. The combined RRs for CVD mortality were 0.89 (95 % CI 0.77–1.02, 17 smoking adjusting studies) for the highest versus low drinking and 0.98 (95 % CI 0.95–1.00, 16 studies) for the increment of 1 cup/day. Compared with low drinking, the RRs for the highest consumption of coffee were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.78–1.15, 12 smoking adjusting studies) for CHD/IHD, 0.95 (95 % CI 0.70–1.29, 6 studies) for stroke, and 1.03 (95 % CI 0.97–1.10, 10 studies) for all cancers. This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence that coffee intake is inversely related to all cause and, probably, CVD mortality.
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This work was supported by the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC), Milan, Italy, Project No. 10068. SM and FT were supported by a fellowship from the Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC).
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The authors declare no conflicts of interest. All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf (available on request from the corresponding author) and declare: no financial relationships or activities with any organizations that might have an interest with the submitted work in the previous 3 years, no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.
Alessandra Tavani has the right to grant on behalf of all authors and does grant on behalf of all authors, an exclusive licence on a worldwide basis to the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd to permit this article to be published in BMJ editions and any other BMJPGL products and sublicences such use and exploit all subsidiary rights, as set out in our licence.
Statistical codes and datasets available from Malerba or Tavani (email@example.com).
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Malerba, S., Turati, F., Galeone, C. et al. A meta-analysis of prospective studies of coffee consumption and mortality for all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Epidemiol 28, 527–539 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-013-9834-7
- All cause mortality
- All cancers mortality
- Cardiovascular disease mortality
- Prospective studies