European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 28, Issue 7, pp 527–539 | Cite as

A meta-analysis of prospective studies of coffee consumption and mortality for all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases

  • Stefano MalerbaEmail author
  • Federica Turati
  • Carlotta Galeone
  • Claudio Pelucchi
  • Federica Verga
  • Carlo La Vecchia
  • Alessandra Tavani


Several prospective studies considered the relation between coffee consumption and mortality. Most studies, however, were underpowered to detect an association, since they included relatively few deaths. To obtain quantitative overall estimates, we combined all published data from prospective studies on the relation of coffee with mortality for all causes, all cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary/ischemic heart disease (CHD/IHD) and stroke. A bibliography search, updated to January 2013, was carried out in PubMed and Embase to identify prospective observational studies providing quantitative estimates on mortality from all causes, cancer, CVD, CHD/IHD or stroke in relation to coffee consumption. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate overall relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. The pooled RRs of all cause mortality for the study-specific highest versus low (≤1 cup/day) coffee drinking categories were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.84–0.93) based on all the 23 studies, and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.82–0.93) for the 19 smoking adjusting studies. The combined RRs for CVD mortality were 0.89 (95 % CI 0.77–1.02, 17 smoking adjusting studies) for the highest versus low drinking and 0.98 (95 % CI 0.95–1.00, 16 studies) for the increment of 1 cup/day. Compared with low drinking, the RRs for the highest consumption of coffee were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.78–1.15, 12 smoking adjusting studies) for CHD/IHD, 0.95 (95 % CI 0.70–1.29, 6 studies) for stroke, and 1.03 (95 % CI 0.97–1.10, 10 studies) for all cancers. This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence that coffee intake is inversely related to all cause and, probably, CVD mortality.


Coffee All cause mortality All cancers mortality Cardiovascular disease mortality Meta-analysis Prospective studies 



This work was supported by the Italian Association for Cancer Research (AIRC), Milan, Italy, Project No. 10068. SM and FT were supported by a fellowship from the Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest. All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at (available on request from the corresponding author) and declare: no financial relationships or activities with any organizations that might have an interest with the submitted work in the previous 3 years, no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 52 kb)
10654_2013_9834_MOESM2_ESM.doc (64 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 64 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Malerba
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Federica Turati
    • 1
    • 3
  • Carlotta Galeone
    • 1
    • 4
  • Claudio Pelucchi
    • 1
  • Federica Verga
    • 5
  • Carlo La Vecchia
    • 1
    • 4
  • Alessandra Tavani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyIRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”MilanItaly
  2. 2.Institute of HygieneUniversità Cattolica Del Sacro CuoreRomeItaly
  3. 3.Struttura Complessa di Statistica Medica, Biometria e BioinformaticaFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilanItaly
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Sciences and Community HealthUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  5. 5.Section of Occupational Medicine, Department of Public Health and PediatricsUniversity of TorinoTurinItaly

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