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Adult height and the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle aged men and women in Japan

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Abstract

An inverse association between height and risk of cardiovascular disease has been reported, but the evidence is limited for stroke subtypes, in particular in Asian populations. Further, few studies have examined how socioeconomic status in adulthood influence the relationship between height and risk of cardiovascular disease. This study examined the association between height and risks of stroke and coronary heart disease, and whether education level, an indicator of adult socioeconomic status, modify the effect of height on those risks, within a cohort of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). The hazard ratios for the incidence of cardiovascular disease associated with height were calculated by a 16-year follow-up of 15,564 Japanese men and women, aged 40–59. The hazard ratios were adjusted for age, gender, area, education, occupation and cardiovascular risk factors. Height was inversely associated with risks of total stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke but not with coronary heart disease. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) of total stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke for a 1 SD height increments were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.90), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.92), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.95), respectively. No multiplicative interaction was observed between height and education level on stroke risk. Short stature was associated with increased risk of total stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, independent of adult socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors, but not with risk of coronary heart disease in Japanese men and women.

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Abbreviations

BMI:

Body mass index

CHD:

Coronary heart disease

CI:

Confidence interval

DBP:

Diastolic blood pressure

FFQ:

Food frequency questionnaire

HR:

Hazard ratios

JPHC Study:

Japan Public Health Center Study

SBP:

Systolic blood pressure

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by grants-in-aid for cancer research and for the Third-Term Comprehensive Ten-Year Strategy for Cancer Control from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. The authors wish to thank all staff members in each of the study areas and in the central office for their extensive efforts to conduct the baseline survey and follow-up.

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Correspondence to Hiroyasu Iso.

Additional information

This study is conducted for the JPHC Study Group.

The JPHC Study Group members are listed in “Appendix” section.

Appendix

Appendix

Members of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study; principal investigator: S. Tsugane) Group are: S. Tsugane, M. Inoue, T. Sobue, and T. Hanaoka, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo; J. Ogata, S. Baba, T. Mannami, and A. Okayama, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita; K. Miyakawa, F. Saito, A. Koizumi, Y. Sano, and I. Hashimoto, Iwate Prefectural Ninohe Public Health Center, Ninohe; Y. Miyajima, N. Suzuki, S. Nagasawa, and Y. Furusugi, Akita Prefectural Yokote Public Health Center, Yokote; H. Sanada, Y. Hatayama, F. Kobayashi, H. Uchino, Y. Shirai, T. Kondo, R. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, and Y. Miyagawa, Nagano Prefectural Saku Public Health Center, Saku; Y. Kishimoto, E. Takara, T. Fukuyama, M. Kinjo, M. Irei, and H. Sakiyama, Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Public Health Center, Okinawa; K. Imoto, H. Yazawa, T. Seo, A. Seiko, F. Ito, and F. Shoji, Katsushika Public Health Center, Tokyo; A. Murata, K. Minato, K. Motegi, and T. Fujieda, Ibaraki Prefectural Mito Public Health Center, Mito; K. Matsui, T. Abe, M. Katagiri, and M. Suzuki, Niigata Prefectural Kashiwazaki and Nagaoka Public Health Center, Kashiwazaki and Nagaoka; M. Doi, A. Terao, and Y. Ishikawa, Kochi Prefectural Chuo-higashi Public Health Center, Tosayamada; H. Sueta, H. Doi, M. Urata, N. Okamoto, and F. Ide, Nagasaki Prefectural Kamigoto Public Health Center, Arikawa; H. Sakiyama, N. Onga, and H. Takaesu, Okinawa Prefectural Miyako Public Health Center, Hirara; F. Horii, I. Asano, H. Yamaguchi, K. Aoki, S. Maruyama, and M. Ichii, Osaka Prefectural Suita Public Health Center, Suita; S. Matsushima and S. Natsukawa, Saku General Hospital, Usuda; M. Akabane, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo; M. Konishi, and K. Okada, Ehime University, Ehime; H. Iso, Osaka University, Suita; Y. Honda and K. Yamagishi, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba; H. Sugimura, Hamamatsu University, Hamamatsu; Y. Tsubono, Tohoku University, Sendai; M. Kabuto, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba; S. Tominaga, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya; M. Iida and W. Ajiki, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease, Osaka; S. Sato, Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion, Osaka; N. Yasuda, Kochi University, Nankoku; S. Kono, Kyushu University, Fukuoka; K. Suzuki, Research Institute for Brain and Blood Vessels Akita, Akita; Y. Takashima, Kyorin University, Mitaka; E. Maruyama, Kobe University, Kobe; M. Yamaguchi, Y. Matsumura, S. Sasaki, and S. Watanabe, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo; T. Kadowaki, Tokyo University, Tokyo; Y. Kawaguchi, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo; and H. Shimizu, Sakihae Institute, Gifu.

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Honjo, K., Iso, H., Inoue, M. et al. Adult height and the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle aged men and women in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 26, 13–21 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-010-9515-8

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