Skip to main content

Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction During Islamic Holiday Seasons


Some weather and holiday seasons are associated with increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied the influence of one such season, Islamic holiday season of “Eid Al-Fitr”, on the incidence of AMI in a Muslim country. This was carried out by examining the admissions to the coronary care unit of a large hospital over six consecutive years (from 1997 to 2003), encompassing six consecutive holiday seasons in Kuwait. We compared the admission rates during three time intervals in each of those 6 years; the Eid holiday season, the 2 months before and the 2 months after. A total of 964 AMI admissions occurred, with a mean age of 55 years. When the admission rates were compared, the Islamic holiday seasons were associated with a significant increase in AMI admission rate (45 cases vs. 31 cases, < 0.01). This increase occurred mainly on the second day of the 4-day holiday season. This finding was confirmed using Locally Weighted Smooth Regression (LOESS) regression models with different smoothing levels. Our finding might have potential implications for preventive health campaigns in Muslim countries.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. InstitutionalAuthorNameCold exposure and winter mortality from ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and all causes in warm and cold regions of Europe (1997) ArticleTitleThe Eurowinter Group Lancet 349 1341–1346

    Google Scholar 

  2. DP Phillips N Christenfeld NM Ryan (1999) ArticleTitleAn increase in the number of deaths in the United States in the first week of the month – an association with substance abuse and other causes of death N Engl J Med 341 93–98 Occurrence Handle10.1056/NEJM199907083410206 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DyaK1MzgsFaqtQ%3D%3D Occurrence Handle10395634

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. FA Spencer RJ Goldberg RC Becker JM. Gore (1998) ArticleTitleSeasonal distribution of acute myocardial infarction in the Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction J Am Coll Cardiol 31 1226–1233 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DyaK1c3ktVyntg%3D%3D Occurrence Handle9581712

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. DP Philips JR Jarvinen IS Abramson RR. Philips (2004) ArticleTitleCardiac mortality is higher around Christmas and New Year’s than at any other time Circulation 110 3781–3788

    Google Scholar 

  5. Woodward M. Epidemiology: Study Design and Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall/CRC texts in statistical science, 2nd edn. USA, 2005

  6. AH. Sakr (1975) ArticleTitleFasting in Islam J Am Diet Assoc 67 17–21 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:CSqC1M%2FisFw%3D Occurrence Handle1141609

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. N Lipovetzky H Hod A Roth Y Kishin S Sclarovsky MS. Green (2004) ArticleTitleHeavy meals as a trigger for a first event of the acute coronary syndrome: A case-crossover study Isr Med Assoc J 12 728–731

    Google Scholar 

  8. H Hioki N Aoki K Kawano et al. (2001) ArticleTitleAcute effects of cigarette smoking on platelet dependent thrombin generation Eur Heart J 22 56–61 Occurrence Handle10.1053/euhj.1999.1938 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXovFejtw%3D%3D Occurrence Handle11133210

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. A. Shihadeh (2003) ArticleTitleInvestigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe Food Chem Toxicol 41 143–152 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XovFGgtLc%3D Occurrence Handle12453738

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. YA Shafagoj FI Mohammed KA. Hadidi (2002) ArticleTitleHubble-bubble (water pipe) smoking: Levels of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva and urine Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 40 249–255 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DC%2BD38zjs1Olsw%3D%3D Occurrence Handle12078938

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammad Zubaid.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zubaid, M., Thalib, L. & Suresh, C.G. Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction During Islamic Holiday Seasons. Eur J Epidemiol 21, 191–195 (2006).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Acute myocardial infarction
  • Holiday seasons
  • Islamic holidays
  • Seasonal variations