The seasonal quality of groundwater and its appropriateness for drinking and irrigation were assessed using a multiple indexing approach in this study. Physicochemical and ionic parameters were examined in groundwater samples near the industrial zone of Rupnagar, Punjab. To assess groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) and pollution index were used. The Durov's, piper, wilcox and stiff diagrams were plotted to understand the hydro-chemistry. Similarly, the irrigation indices, i.e., salinity hazard, sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage (Na%), magnesium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, permeability index and Kelley's ratio were applied to ascertain the water quality for agricultural purposes. As a result, total hardness, calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and fluoride (F−) were found above the standard permissible limits. WQI analysis showed 12% samples of pre-monsoon (PRE-M) and 28% samples of post-monsoon (POS-M) were of poor quality, which may pose health risks. Hydrochemistry revealed the predominance of Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and HCO3− ions in the groundwater attributed to natural and anthropogenic sources. Piper diagram revealed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl−, Na+-Cl−, Ca2+-Na+- HCO3−, Ca2+- HCO3− and Ca2+-Cl, Ca2+-HCO3− water types exist in the study area. USSL diagram showed that the samples from both seasons come under the low salinity hazard. In addition, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity showed a strong positive association, indicating the saline nature of groundwater. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering classified groundwater into three groups (I, II and III), revealing that groundwater quality varies due to natural and anthropogenic effects. Based on the findings, the groundwater was found marginally suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. It is therefore recommended that the groundwater is examined on a regular basis in order to maintain its quality.
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Authors are grateful to the Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, for providing laboratory facilities. We also acknowledge the Health Care Without Harm (HCWH), U.S.A for partial support of the work.
This research did not receive any specifc grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-proft sectors.
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Vig, N., Ravindra, K. & Mor, S. Evaluation of groundwater for drinking and irrigation applications concerning physicochemical and ionic parameters through multiple indexing approach: a case study around the industrial zone, Punjab, India. Environ Geochem Health 45, 2077–2097 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-022-01309-6