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Level, distribution, ecological, and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and stream sediments around a used-automobile spare part market in Nigeria

Abstract

The aim of this research was to assess the distribution, sources, contamination status, ecological risk, and human health risk of heavy metals (HMs) in soil and sediments of a used-automobile spare part market in Nigeria. Forty-three (43) soil samples were collected within a spare part market section (SPMS-17 samples), market-residential section (MRES-10 samples), traffic section (TRAS-10 samples), and non-market residential section (NMRS- 6 samples). Fifteen (15) stream sediments were collected within and around SPMS. Based on average concentrations, HMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Pb, and Zn) had their highest values in SPMS, and their minimum values were observed in NMRS. The high concentration was as a result of contributions from anthropogenic activities such as the direct discharge of used-lubricant oil, scrap metals, tire wear, and traffic emission in the environment. However, Al, Co, and Mn were derived from the geology of the area. The same trend was observed in the stream sediment section (STSS), except that in addition to Al, Co and Mn in soils, Cr was also sourced from geogenic activity. There were moderate to high enrichment/contamination factors of the anthropogenically sourced HMs, especially in the soil of SPMS, MRES, TRAS and stream sediments (STSS). Similarly, high potential ecological risk (Eri) and ecological risks (RI) were observed for As, Pb, and Cd in SPMS and STSS, while these were moderate in MRES and TRAS. Assessment of health risks was within acceptable limit for most of the HMs in the different sections for both adults and children, except As, Cd, and Pb in SPMS and STSS, which were beyond the acceptable limit for children. The carcinogenic risk was within the acceptable limit.

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TOK, the first and corresponding author designed the study, took part in the fieldwork, data analysis, data interpretation, and wrote the manuscript, while OMA, the second author also took part in designing this work, the fieldwork, and manuscript review and JOO-K, the third author took part in the manuscript review. KWF, assisted in the data interpretation, reviewing the manuscript as requested by the reviewers, and in the performance and validations of human health risk assessment results.

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Correspondence to T. O. Kolawole.

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Kolawole, T.O., Ajibade, O.M., Olajide-Kayode, J.O. et al. Level, distribution, ecological, and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and stream sediments around a used-automobile spare part market in Nigeria. Environ Geochem Health (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-022-01283-z

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Keywords

  • Automobile lubricant
  • Heavy metals
  • Enrichment factor
  • Contamination factor