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Fluorine in 20 vegetable species and 25 lettuce cultivars grown on a contaminated field adjacent to a brick kiln

Abstract

Crops grown in areas contaminated by industrial and agricultural fluorine (F) have gained increasing attention, however F levels in different vegetables and lettuce cultivars are rarely reported. In situ-field experiment was designed to investigate the concentration, translocation, and health risks of F in 20 vegetable species and 25 lettuce cultivars. After the growth of 150 d for vegetables and 60 d for lettuce, F concentration (12.83–138.07 mg kg−1), translocation factor (0.16–6.32), and bio-concentration factor (1.90–13.73) varied significantly between vegetable species and lettuce cultivars. According to the hazard quotient values (based on the reference dose of F), all the vegetable species appears to pose no risk to human health, while 60% of the lettuce cultivars present potential health risks to children. Therefore, the limit value of F in vegetables for adults and children should be enacted in the future. Moreover, cabbage, green radish, spinach, leaf mustard, and Frisee lettuce (Huayu) were considered as a safe dietary product. These findings contributed to the safe cultivation of vegetables and the control of fluorosis in the areas contaminated by industrial and agricultural activities.

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Funding

This study was financially supported by Science and Technology Project of Guizhou branch of China Tobacco Corporation (#201907), National Natural Science Foundation of China (#41721001; #31872956), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China.

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Authors

Contributions

MW: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analysis, Writing—Original Draft, Writing—Review & Editing. LL: Methodology, Investigation. DC: Methodology, Validation. YH & AS: Formal analysis, Writing—Review & Editing. ZC & SY: Formal analysis. YF: Resources, Writing—review & editing. XY: Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing—review & editing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xiaoe Yang.

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The authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.

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In our experiments, the animals were not used. The studies were implemented only on plants.

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Wang, M., Liu, L., Chen, D. et al. Fluorine in 20 vegetable species and 25 lettuce cultivars grown on a contaminated field adjacent to a brick kiln. Environ Geochem Health (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-022-01268-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-022-01268-y

Keywords

  • Fluorine
  • Recommended value
  • Classification
  • Field experiment
  • Concentration
  • Translocation
  • Risk assessment