Skip to main content

Stabilization of metals in sludge-amended soil using red mud and its effects on yield and oil quality of Brassica juncea cultivar Kranti

Abstract

Prolonged application of sewage-sludge may cause excessive accumulation of metal(oid)s in soil, leading to phytotoxic effects. Spread of contaminants in soil can probably be hindered by using an effective metal(oid) stabilizer. Pot experiment in open field conditions was conducted for five months to evaluate the metal(oid) (Al, Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr) stabilization potential of red mud (RM) in sludge-amended soil and its effects on growth, yield, oil quality parameters and metal(oid) accumulations in Brassica juncea cultivar Kranti. The test plant was grown at different RM concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w) in sludge-amended soil (soil/sludge: 2:1 w/w). As the total and phytoavailable metal(oid) concentrations in sludge were high, its application increased their concentrations in soil compared to the control (no RM and sludge). Increasing RM concentrations in sludge-amended soil effectively stabilized Cd followed by Cr, Cu, Zn and Al, leading to their reduced contents in plants coupled with enhanced growth performance and yield. Maximum plant (root and shoot) biomass (14.9%) and seed yield (40.4%) were found in 10% RM treatment, whereas oil content showed substantial increase with increasing RM treatments in sludge-amended soil. Mustard oil showed low rancidification, high long-chain fatty acids, saturated and polyunsaturated (ω-3 and ω-6) fatty acids within FAO ranges for edible oils under varying RM treatments compared to sludge-amended soil. Furthermore, high oleic and low erucic acid contents in mustard oil indicated a better oil quality under different RM treatments. Metal(oid) contents in seeds under different red mud treatments were within FAO/WHO limits for consumption. Thus, RM applications preferably 5 and 10% (w/w) in sludge-amended soil might be effective in stabilization of metal(oid)s using B. juncea cultivar Kranti coupled with better yield, improved oil quality and metal(oid)s within limits for human consumption.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  • Abdi, H., & Williams, L. J. (2010). Principal component analysis. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, 2(4), 433–459.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ali, S., Zeng, F., Qiu, B., Cai, S., Qiu, L., Wu, F., & Zhang, G. (2011). Interactive effects of aluminum and chromium stresses on the uptake of nutrients and the metals in barley. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 57(1), 68–79.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allison, F. E. (1973). Soil organic matter and its role in crop production (Vol. 3). Elsevier.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • American Public Health Association (APHA) (1995). Standard method for the examination of water and waste water (14th Ed.), American Public Health Association, no.409A.Washington D.C, pp. 316–317.

  • Andrunik, M., Wołowiec, M., Wojnarski, D., Zelek-Pogudz, S., & Bajda, T. (2020). Transformation of Pb, Cd, and Zn minerals using phosphates. Minerals, 10(4), 342.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ashfaque, F., & Inam, A. (2019). Interactive effect of potassium and flyash: a soil conditioner on metal accumulation, physiological and biochemical traits of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(8), 7847–7862.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Awashthi, S. K. (2000). Prevention of food Adulteration Act. no. 37 of 1954, Central and State Rules as Amended for 1999, Ashoka Law House, New Delhi.

  • Ben Ghnaya, A., Charles, G., Hourmant, A., Ben Hamida, J., & Branchard, M. (2009). Physiological behaviour of four rapeseed cultivar (Brassica napus L.) submitted to metal stress. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 332, 363–370.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhattacharya, S., Sinha, S., Dey, P., Das, N., & Maiti, M. K. (2012). Production of nutritionally desirable fatty acids in seed oil of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) by metabolic engineering. Phytochemistry Reviews, 11(2–3), 197–209.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buchmann, M.F. (2008). NOAA Screening Quick Reference Tables, NOAA OR & R Report 08–1. Seattle (WA): Office of Response and Restoration Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. pp. 34.

  • Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (1991). 10500 Indian Standard Drinking Water–Specification, first revision. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.

  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) (2006). Water Quality Status of Yamuna River (1999–2005), Assessment and Development of River Basin Series: ADSORBS/41/ 2006–07.

  • Chang, N. W., & Huang, P. C. (1998). Effects of the ratio of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid on rat plasma and liver lipid concentrations. Lipids, 33(5), 481–487.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chang, Y. T., Hseu, Z. Y., & Zehetner, F. (2014). Evaluation of phytoavailability of heavy metals to Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in rural soils. The Scientific World Journal, 2014(309396), 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • da Silva Cerozi, B., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2016). The effect of pH on phosphorus availability and speciation in an aquaponics nutrient solution. Bioresource Technology, 219, 778–781.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Delhaize, E., Craig, S., Beaton, C. D., Bennet, R. J., Jagadish, V. C., & Randall, P. J. (1993). Aluminum tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (I. Uptake and distribution of aluminum in root apices). Plant Physiology, 103(3), 685–693.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Emamverdian, A., Ding, Y., Mokhberdoran, F., & Xie, Y. (2015). Heavy metal stress and some mechanisms of plant defense response. The Scientific World Journal, 2015, 26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feigl, V., Anton, A., Uzigner, N., & Gruiz, K. (2012). Red mud as a chemical stabilizer for soil contaminated with toxic metals. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223(3), 1237–1241.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fink, J. R., Inda, A. V., Tiecher, T., & Barrón, V. (2016). Iron oxides and organic matter on soil phosphorus availability. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia, 40(4), 369–379.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1999). Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils (CODEX-STAN 210 - 1999), Codex Alimentarius Commission, USA. http://www.fao.org/3/Y2774E/y2774e04.htm. Accessed on 12.09.2019.

  • Gaidajis, G. (2003). Ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate matter and its elemental constituents at the wider area of the mining facilities of TVX Hellas in Chalkidiki, Greece. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 38(11), 2509–2520.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gautam, M., & Agrawal, M. (2019a). Identification of metal tolerant plant species for sustainable phytomanagement of abandoned red mud dumps. Applied Geochemistry, 104, 83–92.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gautam, M., & Agrawal, M. (2019b). Effects of red mud addition in soil fertilized with cowdung manure on growth performance and metal accumulations in Brassica juncea cultivars Kranti and Pusa Bold. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 50(10), 1214–1231.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gautam, M., Pandey, D., & Agrawal, M. (2017). Phytoremediation of metals using lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in soil amended with biowastes. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 19(6), 555–562.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghafoorunissa (1994). Dietary fats/oils and heart diseases. In: M. V. R. Prasad (Ed.), Sustainability in Oil Seeds. Hyderabad: Indian Society Oil Seed Research, pp. 486-490.

  • Gray, C. W., Dunham, S. J., Dennis, P. G., Zhao, F. J., & McGrath, S. P. (2006). Field evaluation of in situ remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil using lime and red-mud. Environmental Pollution, 142(3), 530–539.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greger, M. (2004). Metal Availability, Uptake, Transport and Accumulation in Plants. In M. N. V. Prasad (Ed.), Heavy Metal Stress in Plants. Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, A. K., Mishra, R. K., Sinha, S., & Lee, B. K. (2010). Growth, metal accumulation and yield performance of Brassica campestris L.(cv. Pusa Jaikisan) grown on soil amended with tannery sludge/fly ash mixture. Ecological Engineering, 36(8), 981–991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, N., Ram, H., & Kumar, B. (2016). Mechanism of Zinc absorption in plants: Uptake, transport, translocation and accumulation. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology, 15(1), 89–109.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hesse, P. R. (1971). A textbook of soil chemical analysis. In: J. Murray (Ed.), A textbook of soil chemical analysis. London, pp. 35–88.

  • Hua, Y., Heal, K. V., & Friesl-Hanl, W. (2017). The use of red mud as an immobiliser for metal/metalloid-contaminated soil: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 325, 17–30.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hunter, P. J., Teakle, G., & Bending, G. D. (2014). Root traits and microbial community interactions in relation to phosphorus availability and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5, 27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ibrahim, M. H., Chee Kong, Y., & Mohd Zain, N. A. (2017). Effect of cadmium and copper exposure on growth, secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity in the medicinal plant Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr). Molecules, 22(10), 1623.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B. B., & Beeregowda, K. N. (2014). Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 7(2), 60–72.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Joint FAO/WHO (2001). Expert Committee on Food Additives, Meeting & World Health Organization, Compendium of Food Additive Specifications: Addendum 9 (No. 52). US: Food & Agriculture Organisation.

  • Kabata-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (2001). Trace Elements in Soils and Plants (3rd ed.). CRC Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kozlowski, T. T., & Pallardy, S. G. (1984). Effect of flooding on water, carbohydrate, and mineral relations. Flooding and Plant Growth, 165–193.

  • Kumar, V., & Chopra, A. K. (2014). Accumulation and translocation of metals in soil and different parts of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) amended with sewage sludge. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 92(1), 103–108.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kurdowski, W., & Sorrentino, F. (1997). Waste materials used in concrete manufacturing (pp. 290–308). William Andrew Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, S. H., Lee, J. S., Choi, Y. J., & Kim, J. G. (2009). In situ stabilization of cadmium-, lead-, and zinc-contaminated soil using various amendments. Chemosphere, 77(8), 1069–1075.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li, B., Yang, J., Wei, D., Chen, S., Li, J., & Ma, Y. (2014). Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil. PloS one, 9(10), e109967.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Li, P., Peng, X., Luan, Z., Zhao, T., Zhang, C., & Liu, B. (2016). Effects of red mud addition on cadmium accumulation in cole (Brassica campestris L) under high fertilization conditions. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 16(8), 2097–2104.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meng, X., Huang, Q., Xu, J., Gao, H., & Yan, J. (2019). A review of phosphorus recovery from different thermal treatment products of sewage sludge. Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy, 1(2), 99–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moore, R. P. (1973). Tetrazolium staining for assessing seed quality. In W. Heydecker (Ed.), Seed Ecology (pp. 347–366). Butterworth.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murtaza, G., Javed, W., Hussain, A., Qadir, M., & Aslam, M. (2017). Soil-applied zinc and copper suppress cadmium uptake and improve the performance of cereals and legumes. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 19(2), 199–206.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A. (1954). Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. US: Circular No. 939, Department of Agriculture, pp. 1–19.

  • Panda, S. K., Baluška, F., & Matsumoto, H. (2009). Aluminum stress signaling in plants. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 4(7), 592–597.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pant, P. P., & Tripathi, A. K. (2012). Effect of lead and Cadmium on morphological parameters of Syzygium Cumini Linn seedling. Indian Journal of Science, 1(1), 29–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pérez-Esteban, J., Escolástico, C., Moliner, A., Masaguer, A., & Ruiz-Fernández, J. (2014). Phytostabilization of metals in mine soils using Brassica juncea in combination with organic amendments. Plant and Soil, 377(1–2), 97–109.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Potts, D.A., Rakow, G.W., Males, D.R. (1999). Canola-quality Brassica juncea, a new oilseed crop for the Canadian prairies. New Horizons for an old crop. Australia: Proc 10th Intl rapeseed Congr, Canberra.

  • Qiao, L., & Ho, G. (1996). The effect of clay amendment on speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Water Science and Technology, 34(7–8), 413–420.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Quevauviller, P., Rauret, G., Rubio, R., López-Sánchez, J. F., Ure, A., Bacon, J., & Muntau, H. (1997). Certified reference materials for the quality control of EDTA-and acetic acid-extractable contents of trace elements in sewage sludge amended soils (CRMs 483 and 484). Fresenius’ Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 357(6), 611–618.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rachna, S. (2016). Effect of chromium and zinc accumulation on antioxidant enzymes during phytoremediation in Amaranthus viridis & Parthenium hysterophorus. Indian Journal of Science & Technology, 9(S1), 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rai, G. K., Bagati, S., Rai, P. K., Rai, S. K., & Singh, M. (2018). Fatty acid profiling in rapeseed mustard (Brassica species). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 7(5), 148–157.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rani, R., & Juwarkar, A. (2015). Effect of Presence of Pesticides in Growth Medium on the Exudation Behaviour of Plants: A Study with Phorate (An Organophosphate Insecticide) and Pisum Sativum (L.). In: International Conference on Biological, Environment and Food Engineering (BEFE-2015).

  • Reddy, P. S., Reddy, N. G., Serjun, V. Z., Mohanty, B., Das, S. K., Reddy, K. R., & Rao, B. H. (2020). Properties and assessment of applications of red mud (Bauxite Residue): Current status and research needs. Waste and Biomass Valorization. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-020-01089-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Riski, O., Prasetyoko, D., Febrianti, D. K., Ni’mah, Y. L., Iftitahiyah, V. N., Qoni,ah, I., & Santoso, E. (2019). The effect of crystallization time and H2O/CTAB ratio in the synthesis of mesoporous alumina from bauxite residue (red mud). Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 15(1), 93–98.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Samal, S. (2021). Utilization of red mud as a source for metal ions—a review. Materials, 14(9), 2211.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, J. C., Appel, H. M., Ferrieri, A., & Arnold, T. M. (2013). Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4, 324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shanker, A. K., Cervantes, C., Loza-Tavera, H., & Avudainayagam, S. (2005). Chromium toxicity in plants. Environment International, 31(5), 739–753.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharafi, Y., Majidi, M. M., Goli, S. A. H., & Rashidi, F. (2015). Oil content and fatty acids composition in Brassica species. International Journal of Food Properties, 18(10), 2145–2154.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma, A., Kapoor, D., Wang, J., Shahzad, B., Kumar, V., Bali, A. S., & Yan, D. (2020). Chromium bioaccumulation and its impacts on plants: An overview. Plants, 9(1), 100.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma, B., & Singh, R. P. (2019). Physiological, Biochemical, Growth, and Yield Responses of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Plants Grown on Different Sewage Sludge–Fly Ash Mixture (SLASH) Ratios. In: Waste Valorisation and Recycling. Springer, Singapore. pp. 539–552.

  • Sharma, B., Sarkar, A., Singh, P., & Singh, R. P. (2017). Agricultural utilization of biosolids: A review on potential effects on soil and plant grown. Waste Management, 64, 117–132.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh, B. K., Bala, M., & Rai, P. K. (2014). Fatty acid composition and seed meal characteristics of Brassica and allied genera. National Academy Science Letters, 37(3), 219–226.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh, R. P., & Agrawal, M. (2008). Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge. Waste Management, 28(2), 347–358.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh, R., Singh, S., Manhas, S., & Kumar, A. (2012). Effect of different levels of sulphur and varieties on growth, yield and quality of Indian mustard. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 7, 290–294.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singh, S., & Sinha, S. (2005). Accumulation of metals and its effects in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) grown on various amendments of tannery waste. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 62(1), 118–127.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh, S., Aswath, M. U., Biswas, R. D., Ranganath, R. V., Choudhary, H. K., Kumar, R., & Sahoo, B. (2019). Role of iron in the enhanced reactivity of pulverized red mud: analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 11, e00266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh, S., Parihar, P., Singh, R., Singh, V. P., & Prasad, S. M. (2016). Heavy metal tolerance in plants: Role of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6, 1143.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinha, N., Hui, Y. H., Evranuz, E. Ö., Siddiq, M., & Ahmed, J. (2010). Handbook of vegetables and vegetable processing. John Wiley & Sons.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Sinha, S., Jha, J. K., Maiti, M. K., Basu, A., Mukhopadhyay, U. K., & Sen, S. K. (2007). Metabolic engineering of fatty acid biosynthesis in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) improves nutritional quality of seed oil. Plant Biotechnology Reports, 1(4), 185–197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thakur, S., & Sharma, S. S. (2016). Characterization of seed germination, seedling growth, and associated metabolic responses of Brassica juncea L. cultivars to elevated nickel concentrations. Protoplasma, 253, 571–580.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tangahu, B. V., Sheikh Abdullah, S. R., Basri, H., Idris, M., Anuar, N., & Mukhlisin, M. (2011). A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2011, 35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Topcuoglu, B. (2012). The influence of humic acids on the metal bioavailability and phytoextraction efficiency in long-term sludge applied soil. In: Conference on international research on food security, natural resource management and rural development. Tropentag, Gottingen, Germany. pp. 19–21.

  • Tripathi, R., & Agrawal, S. B. (2012). Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 85, 1–12.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, S., Shi, X., Sun, H., Chen, Y., Pan, H., Yang, X., & Rafiq, T. (2014). Variations in metal tolerance and accumulation in three hydroponically cultivated varieties of Salix integra treated with lead. PLoS ONE, 9, 108–568.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wierzbowska, J., Kovačik, P., Sienkiewicz, S., Krzebietke, S., & Bowszys, T. (2018). Determination of heavy metals and their availability to plants in soil fertilized with different waste substances. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(10), 567.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wu, Q., Wang, S., Thangavel, P., Li, Q., Zheng, H., Bai, J., & Qiu, R. (2011). Phytostabilization potential of Jatropha curcas L in polymetallic acid mine tailings. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 13(8), 788–804.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xue, S., Zhu, F., Kong, X., Wu, C., Huang, L., Huang, N., & Hartley, W. (2016). A review of the characterization and revegetation of bauxite residues. Environment Science and Pollution Research, 23, 1120–1132.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zacchini, M., Pietrini, F., Mugnozza, G. S., Iori, V., Pietrosanti, L., & Massacci, A. (2009). Metal tolerance, accumulation and translocation in poplar and willow clones treated with cadmium in hydroponics. Water Air Soil Pollution, 197, 23–34.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeng, F., Ali, S., Zhang, H., Ouyang, Y., Qiu, B., Wu, F., & Zhang, G. (2011). The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants. Environmental Pollution, 159, 84–91.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, X., Wang, X. Q., & Wang, D. F. (2017). Immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge during land application process in China: A review. Sustainability, 9(11), 2020.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao, W., Liu, J., Rao, Z., Wang, J., Zhang, L., & Li, D. (2015). Determination of metal elements in red mud using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 27(3), 935.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) (2012). Manual of Methods of Analysis of Foods Oils and Fats), FSSAI: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. New Delhi, pp. 62–78.

Download references

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to the Head, Department of Botany, Coordinators, CAS, DST-FIST, ISLS, Institute of Eminence, Banaras Hindu University and HINDALCO Industries Ltd., Renukoot, U.P. for providing all the necessary facilities during the research work. Meenu Gautam is thankful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (File No. 09/013(0857)/2018-EMR-I), New Delhi, for Research Associateship, for financial assistance. We are also grateful to the editor and anonymous reviewers for their critical comments and helpful suggestions which helped us in improving the manuscript.

Funding

The research was supported by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (File No. 09/013(0857)/2018-EMR-I), New Delhi.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Data curation and the original draft preparation were done by MG. Statistical analysis was performed by BP. Visualization and investigation of the draft were performed by SBA. Conceptualization, methodology, visualization, investigation, editing and supervision before the submission of the final draft were done by MA.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Madhoolika Agrawal.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Consent for publication

The article has been approved by the authors for publication in Environmental Geochemistry and Health.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy or ethical restrictions.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 358 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gautam, M., Pandey, B., Agrawal, S.B. et al. Stabilization of metals in sludge-amended soil using red mud and its effects on yield and oil quality of Brassica juncea cultivar Kranti. Environ Geochem Health 44, 1431–1450 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-01150-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-01150-3

Keywords

  • Brassica juncea
  • Metal(oid)s
  • Oil quality
  • Red mud
  • Sewage-sludge
  • Yield