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Main features and contamination of sealed soils in the east of Moscow city

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to characterize the main properties and level of pollution of sealed soils in different land use zones of the Eastern administrative district (EAD) of Moscow. In 2016–2017 overall, 47 samples were taken from 35 soil pits. The list of soil properties analyzed included actual acidity, organic carbon content, particle-size distribution, and degree of salinity. Pollution of sealed soils with petroleum products (PPs), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and heavy metals and metalloids (HMMs) was evaluated. Sealed soils are characterized by the medium organic matter content (2.24%), alkaline reaction (pH 8.0), sandy loamy texture, and the absence of soluble salts in the upper part of the profile. The pronounced technogenic anomalies of hydrocarbons are mainly formed in the sealed soils of the industrial and traffic land use zones. The mean content of BaP in the sealed soils is 56 times higher than that in the background soils, it exceeds MPC by 9.5 times. The concentrations of most HMMs in the sealed soils exceed the background level by two–four times. The most intense accumulation of As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Sn takes place in the industrial zone with the high degree of sealing. The hygienic standards for BaP and PPs contents approved in the Russian Federation in the sealed soils of EAO are exceeded by almost ten times. Maximum permissible concentrations are also exceeded for a large group of HMMs. The high contamination of the sealed soils can create dangerous ecological situation in the EAD if road covering will be removed and pollutants begin to migrate.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to undergraduates of the Geographical Faculty of Moscow State University E.V. Shestova and A.G. Tsykhman for their participation in field studies and chemical analyses of the samples and an assistant professor of the Faculty of Geography M.A. Smirnova for a consultation. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation. Field and analytical works were performed within the framework of the project no. 14-27-00083, data analysis and interpretation – within the Project No. 19-77-30004.

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Nikiforova, E.M., Kasimov, N.S., Kosheleva, N.E. et al. Main features and contamination of sealed soils in the east of Moscow city. Environ Geochem Health 44, 1697–1711 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-01132-5

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Keywords

  • Soil properties
  • Petroleum products
  • Benzo[a
  • Pyrene
  • Heavy metals and metalloids
  • Land use zones