The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has become an increasingly serious global public health issue. This study investigated the distribution characteristics and influencing factors of ARB and ARGs in greenhouse vegetable soils with long-term application of manure. Five typical ARGs, four heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs), and two mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The amount of ARB in manure-improved soil greatly exceeded that in control soil, and the bacterial resistance rate decreased significantly with increases in antibiotic concentrations. In addition, the resistance rate of ARB to enrofloxacin (ENR) was lower than that of tylosin (TYL). Real-time qPCR results showed that long-term application of manure enhanced the relative abundance of ARGs in vegetable soils, and the content and proportion of quinolone resistance genes were higher than those of macrolide resistance genes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that qepA and qnrS significantly correlated with total and available amounts of Cu and Zn, highlighting that certain heavy metals can influence persistence of ARGs. Integrase gene intI1 correlated significantly with the relative abundance of qepA, qnrS, and ermF, suggesting that intI1 played an important role in the horizontal transfer of ARGs. Furthermore, there was a weakly but not significantly positive correlation between specific detected MRGs and ARGs and MGEs. The results of this study enhance understanding the potential for increasing ARGs in manure-applied soil, assessing ecological risk and reducing the spread of ARGs.
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number 41671320], the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China [ZR2016JL029] and the Special Funds of Taishan Scholar of Shandong Province, China [grant numbers JQ201711].
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Dong, Z., Wang, J., Wang, L. et al. Distribution of quinolone and macrolide resistance genes and their co-occurrence with heavy metal resistance genes in vegetable soils with long-term application of manure. Environ Geochem Health (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-01102-x
- Antibiotic resistance genes
- Heavy metal resistance genes