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Preparation, characterization, and applications of polyacrylonitrile/ball clay nanocomposite synthesized by gamma radiation


Elimination of hazardous metals is of extreme worry for their toxicity at trace levels and accumulation in the biosystem. Polyacrylonitrile ball clay nanocomposite was prepared by gamma irradiation at 20 kGy. Different analytical tools were applied to prove morphology, functional groups, and chemical structure for prepared composite; SEM, TEM, IR, XRD, and XRF. From TEM and XRD data expose the studied composite has nanoscale and crystalline. The adsorption of Cs+, Co2+ and Fe3+ onto studied material took place after 24 h. Second order was preceded by the kinetic system. The capacity and effect of pH on kd reflect selectivity sequence; Co2+  > Fe3+  >  > Cs+. Both Freundlich and Langmuir are applicable for investigated material. Finally, PAN/BC nanocomposite is suitable for the column technique.

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K f :

Adsorption capacity

q m :

Adsorption capacity

1/n :

Adsorption intensity

q e :

Amount uptake


Atomic absorption spectrometer

V/m :

Batch factor

θ :

Bragg angle

R 2 :

Correlation coefficient

D :

Crystalline size

\(\delta\) :

Dislocation density

k d :

Distribution coefficient

C eq :

Equilibrium concentration

C f :

Final concentration for ions

C i :

Initial concentration for ions


Fourier transform infrared

β (FWHM):

Full width at half maximum



\(\varepsilon\) :

Lattice strain


Polyacrylonitrile ball clay


Scanning electron microscopy

\(\alpha_{II}^{I}\) :

Separation factor

Β :

Desorption constant

K L :

Energy of adsorption

α :

Initial sorption rate

h :

Initial sorption rate

K 1 :

First-order rate constant

K 2 :

Second-order rate constant

K :

Shape factor


Transmission electron microscopy


Volume of solution




Weight of composite






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MRA contributed to data curation, writing—original draft review, and editing. EHE contributed to experimental work and editing. ABI contributed to experimental work.

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Correspondence to M. R. Abass.

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Abass, M.R., EL-Masry, E.H. & Ibrahim, A.B. Preparation, characterization, and applications of polyacrylonitrile/ball clay nanocomposite synthesized by gamma radiation. Environ Geochem Health 43, 3169–3188 (2021).

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  • Hazardous metals
  • Nanocomposite
  • Gamma radiation
  • Kinetic
  • Sorption isotherm
  • Column