Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal that occurs in the environment in large quantities through human activities, has been shown to have adverse effects on female reproductive health. However, the association between cadmium exposure and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), one of the most prevalent ovarian diseases in women, has not been examined yet. This case–control study involving 169 POI cases and 209 healthy controls was conducted in Zhejiang Province, China. The urinary concentrations of cadmium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, serum levels of reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol, were measured. The median concentration of urinary cadmium in POI cases (0.43 μg/L, 0.58 μg/g for creatinine adjustment) was significantly higher than that of controls (0.29 μg/L, 0.43 μg/g for creatinine adjustment). The results of binary logistic regression models showed that the concentrations of urinary cadmium were positively significantly correlated with the odds ratio (ORs) of POI before the adjustment of confounders. After the adjustment, a significantly positive association was still present between the increased concentrations of cadmium and the ORs of POI (2.50, 95% CIs: 1.34–4.65 for the third tertile, p for trend = 0.001). The serum levels of FSH and LH were positively associated with urinary cadmium, while AMH and estradiol levels were inversely correlated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported positive association of cadmium exposure with the risk of POI in women.
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This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019FZJD007 and 2019QNA6008), Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LZ21B070001), National Natural Science Foundation of China (21876151, 22076166 and 81703236), Program for Key Subjects of Zhejiang Province in Medicine & Hygiene and Project for Zhejiang Medical Technology Program (2018KY437 and WKJ-ZJ-1621).
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Pan, W., Ye, X., Zhu, Z. et al. Urinary cadmium concentrations and risk of primary ovarian insufficiency in women: a case–control study. Environ Geochem Health (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00775-0
- Heavy metal
- Primary ovarian insufficiency
- Reproductive hormones
- Female reproductive health